Demographics of Republic of India

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For criticism see Criticism of Demographics_of_Republic_of_India

The demographics of India are inclusive of the second most populous country in the world, with over 1.21 billion people (2011 census), more than a sixth of the world's population. Already containing 17.5% of the world's population, India is projected to be the world's most populous country by 2025, surpassing China, its population reaching 1.6 billion by 2050.[1][2] Its population growth rate is 1.41%, ranking 93rd in the world.

India has more than 50% of its population below the age of 25 and more than 65% hovers below the age of 35. It is expected that, in 2020, the average age of an Indian will be 29 years, compared to 37 for China and 48 for Japan; and, by 2030, India's dependency ratio should be just over 0.4.[3]

India has more than two thousand ethnic groups, and every major religion is represented, as are four major families of languages (Indo-European, Dravidian, Austro-Asiatic and Tibeto-Burman languages) as well as two language isolates (the Nihali language[4] spoken in parts of Maharashtra and the Burushaski language spoken in parts of Jammu and Kashmir).

Further complexity is lent by the great variation that occurs across this population on social parameters such as income and education. Only the continent of Africa exceeds the linguistic, genetic and cultural diversity of the nation of India.[5]

Template:Infobox country demographics

Salient features

India occupies 2.4% of the world's land area and supports over 17.5% of the world's population. India has more arable land area than any country except the United States,[6] and more water area than any country except Russia, Canada and the United States. Indian life revolves mostly around agriculture and allied activities in small villages, where the overwhelming majority of Indians live. As per the 2001 census, 72.2% of the population[7] lives in about 638,000 villages[8] and the remaining 27.8%[7] lives in more than 5,100 towns and over 380 urban agglomerations.[9]

Where does India stand today globally?

Sl No. Category Global Ranking
1 Area 7th
2 Population 2nd
3 Population growth rate 93rd
4 Labour force 2nd
5 GDP (nominal) 10th
6 GDP (PPP) 4th
7 GDP (nominal) per capita 138th
8 GDP (PPP) per capita 127th
9 GDP (real) growth rate 5th
10 Human Development Index 134th
11 Exports 16th
12 Imports 11th
13 Current Account balance 169th
14 Received FDI 29th
15 Foreign Exchange reserves 6th
16 External debt 26th
17 Public debt 29th
18 Electricity consumption 5th
19 Mobile phone users 2nd
20 Internet users 4th
21 Motor vehicle production 7th
22 Military expenditure 10th
23 Active troops 3rd
24 Rail network 4th
25 Road network 3rd

List of States and Union territories by demographics

Historical population of India 
Census Pop.
1951 361,088,000
1961 439,235,000 21.6%
1971 548,160,000 24.8%
1981 683,329,000 24.7%
1991 846,421,000 23.9%
2001 1,028,737,000 21.5%
2011 1,210,193,422 17.6%
Source:Census of India[10]
Rank State or union territory Population (2011) %[11] Rural Pop.[12] Urban Pop.[12] Area km²[13] Density (per km²) Area mi² Density (per mi²) Sex ratio
1 Uttar Pradesh 199,581,520 16.49% 131,658,339 34,539,582 240,928 828 93,022.8 2146 908
2 Maharashtra 112,372,972 9.29% 55,777,647 41,100,980 307,713 365 118,808.7 815 946
3 Bihar 103,804,637 8.58% 74,316,709 8,681,800 94,163 1102 36,356.5 2,855 916
4 West Bengal 91,347,736 7.55% 57,748,946 22,427,251 88,752 1030 34,267.3 2,666 908
5 Andhra Pradesh 84,665,533 7.00% 55,401,067 20,808,940 275,045 308 106,195.5 797 912
6 Madhya Pradesh 72,597,565 6.00% 44,380,878 15,967,145 308,245 236 119,014.1 610 930
7 Tamil Nadu 72,138,958 5.96% 34,921,681 27,483,998 130,058 555 50,215.7 1,437 945
8 Rajasthan 68,621,012 5.67% 43,292,813 13,214,375 342,239 201 132,139.2 519 926
9 Karnataka 61,130,704 5.05% 34,889,033 17,961,529 191,791 319 74,050.9 826 968
10 Gujarat 60,383,628 4.99% 31,740,767 18,930,250 196,024 308 75,685.3 798 918
11 Orissa 41,947,358 3.47% 31,287,422 5,517,238 155,707 269 60,118.8 698 905
12 Kerala 33,387,677 2.76% 23,574,449 8,266,925 38,863 859 15,005.1 2,225 1,084
13 Jharkhand 32,966,238 2.72% 20,952,088 5,993,741 79,714 414 30,777.7 1071 947
14 Assam 31,169,272 2.58% 23,216,288 3,439,240 78,438 397 30,285.1 1029 954
15 Punjab 27,704,236 2.29% 16,096,488 8,262,511 50,362 550 19,444.9 1,425 893
16 Haryana 25,353,081 2.09% 15,029,260 6,115,304 44,212 573 17,070.3 1,485 877
17 Chhattisgarh 25,540,196 2.11% 16,648,056 4,185,747 135,191 189 52,197.5 489 991
18 Jammu and Kashmir 12,548,926 1.04% 7,627,062 2,516,638 222,236 56 85,805.8 146 883
19 Uttarakhand 10,116,752 0.84% 6,310,275 2,179,074 53,483 189 20,649.9 490 963
20 Himachal Pradesh 6,856,509 0.57% 5,482,319 595,581 55,673 123 21,495.5 319 974
21 Tripura 3,671,032 0.30% 2,653,453 545,750 10,486 350 4,048.7 907 921
22 Meghalaya 2,964,007 0.24% 1,864,711 454,111 22,429 132 8,659.9 342 986
23 Manipurβ 2,721,756 0.22% 1,590,820 575,968 22,327 122 8,620.5 316 987
24 Nagaland 1,980,602 0.16% 1,647,249 342,787 16,579 119 6,401.2 309 931
25 Goa 1,457,723 0.12% 677,091 670,577 3,702 394 1,429.4 1020 968
26 Arunachal Pradesh 1,382,611 0.11% 870,087 227,881 83,743 17 32,333.4 43 920
27 Mizoram 1,091,014 0.09% 447,567 441,006 21,081 52 8,139.4 134 975
28 Sikkim 607,688 0.05% 480,981 59,870 7,096 86 2,739.8 222 889
UT1 Delhi 16,753,235 1.38% 944,727 12,905,780 11,297 9,340 572.6 29,258 866
UT2 Pondicherry 1,244,464 0.10% 325,726 648,619 479 2,598 184.9 6,730 1,038
UT3 Chandigarh 1,054,686 0.09% 92,120 808,515 114 9,252 44.0 23,970 818
UT4 Andaman and Nicobar Islands 379,944 0.03% 239,954 116,198 8,249 46 3,185.0 119 878
UT5 Dadra and Nagar Haveli 342,853 0.03% 170,027 50,463 491 698 189.6 1,808 775
UT6 Daman and Diu 242,911 0.02% 100,856 57,348 112 2,169 43.2 5,623 618
UT7 Lakshadweep 64,429 0.01% 33,683 26,967 32 2,013 12.4 5,196 946
Total India 1,210,193,422 100.00% 742,490,639 286,119,689 3,287,240 382 1,269,210.5 954 940

Districts in India: Census 2011

State/UT Code India/State/UT No. of districts in 2001 No. of Districts in 2011 No. of Districts without any geographical change
01 Jammu & Kashmir 14 22 5
02 Himachal Pradesh 12 12 12
03 Punjab 17 20 8
04 Chandigarh 1 1 1
05 Uttarakhand 13 13 11
06 Haryana 19 21 17
07 NCT of Delhi 9 9 9
08 Rajasthan 32 33 18
09 Uttar Pradesh 70 71 47
10 Bihar 37 38 34
11 Sikkim 4 4 4
12 Arunachal Pradesh 13 16 10
13 Nagaland 8 11 4
14 Manipur 9 9 9
15 Mizoram 8 8 4
16 Tripura 4 4 2
17 Meghalaya 7 7 4
18 Assam 23 27 15
19 West Bengal 18 19 17
20 Jharkhand 18 24 9
21 Orissa 30 30 26
22 Chattisgarh 16 18 14
23 Madhya Pradesh 45 50 36
24 Gujarat 25 26 20
25 Daman & Diu 2 2 2
26 Dadra & Nagar Haveli 1 1 1
27 Maharashtra 35 35 31
28 Andhra Pradesh 23 23 23
29 Karnataka 27 30 24
30 Goa 2 2 2
31 Lakshadweep 1 1 1
32 Kerala 14 14 14
33 Tamil Nadu 30 32 25
34 Pondicherry 4 4 4
35 Andaman & Nicobar Islands 2 3 1
INDIA 593 640 464

[14]

Religious demographics

Template:Religion in India

India contains the majority of the world's Zoroastrians (even ahead of Iran), Sikhs, Hindus, Jains and Bahá'ís. India is also home to the third-largest Muslim population in the world after Indonesia and Pakistan.

Religious majorities vary greatly by state. The majority of states have a Hindu majority. However, Jammu and Kashmir and Lakshadweep are Muslim majority states; Nagaland, Mizoram and Meghalaya are Christian majority; Punjab is majority Sikh; Sikkim and Ladakh are Buddhist majority areas[cn]

The table below summarises the findings of the 2001 census with regard to religion in India:

  1. All figures in %.
  2. Others including Bahá'ís, Jews, and Parsis.
  3. Tribal Animists (and non religious) are grouped under Others after 1926 (1931 census onwards)
Table 2: Census information for 2001*
Composition Hindus[15] Muslims[16] Christians[17] Sikhs[18] Buddhist[19] Jains[20] Others[21]
 % total of population 2001 80.5% 13.4% 2.3% 1.9% 0.8% 0.4% 0.6%
10-Yr Growth % (est '91–'01)[22]* 20.3% 29.5% 22.6% 18.2% 24.5% 26.0% 103.1%
Sex ratio† (avg. 944) 935 940 1009 895 955 940 1000
Literacy rate (71.7% for Age 7 & above)[23] 75.5 60.0 90.3 70.4 73.0 95.0 50.0
Work Participation Rate 40.4 31.3 39.7 37.7 40.6 32.9 48.4
Rural sex ratio[22] 944 953 1001 895 958 937 995
Urban sex ratio[22] 922 907 1026 886 944 941 966
Child sex ratio (0–6 yrs) 925 950 964 786 942 870 976

N.B. Table excludes Mao-Maram, Paomata and Purul subdivisions of Senapati District of Manipur state.

* The data is "unadjusted" (without excluding Assam and Indian-administered Kashmir); 1981 census was not conducted in Assam and 1991 census was not conducted in Jammu and Kashmir.

† No. of females/1000 males.

India's 2011 census shows a serious decline in the number of girls under the age of seven - activists fear eight million female foetuses may have been aborted between 2001 and 2011.[24]

Population within the age group of 0-6: Census 2011

State/UT Code India/State/UT Persons Males Females
01 Jammu & Kashmir 20,08,642 10,80,662 9,27,980
02 Himachal Pradesh 7,63,864 4,00,681 3,63,183
03 Punjab 29,41,570 15,93,262 13,48,308
04 Chandigarh 1,17,953 63,187 54,766
05 Uttarakhand 13,28,844 7,04,769 6,24,075
06 Haryana 32,97,724 18,02,047 14,95,677
07 NCT of Delhi 19,70,510 10,55,735 9,14,775
08 Rajasthan 1,05,04,916 55,80,212 49,24,704
09 Uttar Pradesh 2,97,28,235 1,56,53,175 1,40,75,060
10 Bihar 1,85,82,229 96,15,280 89,66,949
11 Sikkim 61,077 31,418 29,659
12 Arunachal Pradesh 2,02,759 1,03,430 99,329
13 Nagaland 2,85,981 1,47,111 1,38,870
14 Manipur 3,53,237 1,82,684 1,70,553
15 Mizoram 1,65,536 83,965 81,571
16 Tripura 4,44,055 2,27,354 2,16,701
17 Meghalaya 5,55,822 2,82,189 2,73,633
18 Assam 45,11,307 23,05,088 22,06,219
19 West Bengal 1,01,12,599 51,87,264 49,25,335
20 Jharkhand 52,37,582 26,95,921 25,41,661
21 Orissa 50,35,650 26,03,208 24,32,442
22 Chhattisgarh 3,584,028 1,824,987 1,759,041
23 Madhya Pradesh 10,548,295 5,516,957 5,031,338
24 Gujarat 7,494,176 3,974,286 3,519,890
25 Daman & Diu 25,880 13,556 12,324
26 Dadra & Nagar Haveli 49,196 25,575 23,621
27 Maharashtra 12,848,375 6,822,262 6,026,113
28 Andhra Pradesh 8,642,686 4,448,330 4,194,356
29 Karnataka 6,855,801 3,527,844 3,327,957
30 Goa 139,495 72,669 66,826
31 Lakshadweep 7,088 3,715 3,373
32 Kerala 3,322,247 1,695,935 1,626,312
33 Tamil Nadu 6,894,821 3,542,351 3,352,470
34 Pondicherry 127,610 64,932 62,678
35 Andaman & Nicobar Islands 39,497 20,094 19,403
INDIA 158,789,287 82,952,135 75,837,152

[14]

Population above the age of 7: Census 2011

State/UT Code India/State/UT Persons Males Females
01 Jammu & Kashmir 1,05,40,284 55,84,889 49,55,385
02 Himachal Pradesh 60,92,645 30,73,211 30,19,434
03 Punjab 2,47,62,666 1,30,41,557 1,17,21,109
04 Chandigarh 9,36,733 5,17,095 4,19,638
05 Uttarakhand 87,87,908 44,49,409 43,38,499
06 Haryana 2,20,55,357 1,17,03,083 1,03,52,274
07 NCT of Delhi 1,47,82,725 79,20,675 68,62,050
08 Rajasthan 5,81,16,096 3,00,39,874 2,80,76,222
09 Uttar Pradesh 16,98,53,242 8,89,43,240 8,09,10,002
10 Bihar 8,52,22,408 4,45,70,067 4,06,52,341
11 Sikkim 5,46,611 2,90,243 2,56,368
12 Arunachal Pradesh 11,79,852 6,16,802 5,63,050
13 Nagaland 16,94,621 8,78,596 8,16,025
14 Manipur 23,68,519 11,87,080 11,81,439
15 Mizoram 9,25,478 4,68,374 4,57,104
16 Tripura 32,26,977 16,44,513 15,82,464
17 Meghalaya 24,08,185 12,10,479 11,97,706
18 Assam 2,66,57,965 1,36,49,839 1,30,08,126
19 West Bengal 8,12,35,137 4,17,40,125 3,94,95,012
20 Jharkhand 2,77,28,656 1,42,35,767 1,34,92,889
21 Orissa 3,69,11,708 1,85,98,470 1,83,13,238
22 Chattisgarh 2,19,56,168 1,10,02,928 1,09,53,240
23 Madhya Pradesh 6,20,49,270 3,20,95,963 2,99,53,307
24 Gujarat 5,28,89,452 2,75,07,996 2,53,81,456
25 Daman & Diu 2,17,031 1,36,544 80,487
26 Dadra & Nagar Haveli 2,93,657 1,67,603 1,26,054
27 Maharashtra 9,95,24,597 5,15,39,135 4,79,85,462
28 Andhra Pradesh 7,60,22,847 3,80,61,551 3,79,61,296
29 Karnataka 5,42,74,903 2,75,29,898 2,67,45,005
30 Goa 13,18,228 6,68,042 6,50,186
31 Lakshadweep 57,341 29,391 27,950
32 Kerala 3,00,65,430 1,43,25,355 1,57,40,075
33 Tamil Nadu 6,52,44,137 3,26,16,520 3,26,27,617
34 Pondicherry 11,16,854 5,45,553 5,71,301
35 Andaman & Nicobar Islands 3,40,447 1,82,236 1,58,211
INDIA 1,05,14,04,135 54,07,72,113 51,06,32,022

[14]

Literacy Rate in India: Census 2011

| 07 || NCT of Delhi || 86.34 || 91.03 || 80.93| 25 || Daman & Diu || 87.07 || 91.48 || 79.59| 26 || Dadra & Nagar Haveli || 77.65 || 86.46 || 65.93| 31 || Lakshadweep || 92.28 || 96.11 || 88.25| 34 || Pondicherry || 86.55 || 92.12 || 81.22| 35 || Andaman & Nicobar Islands || 86.27 || 90.11 || 81.84

State/UT Code India/State/UT Literate Persons (%) Males (%) Females (%)
01 Jammu & Kashmir 68.74 78.26 58.01
02 Himachal Pradesh 83.78 90.83 76.60
03 Punjab 76.68 81.48 71.34
04 Chandigarh 86.43 90.54 81.38
05 Uttarakhand 79.63 88.33 70.70
06 Haryana 76.64 85.38 66.77
08 Rajasthan 67.06 80.51 52.66
09 Uttar Pradesh 69.72 79.24 59.26
10 Bihar 63.82 73.39 53.33
11 Sikkim 82.20 87.29 76.43
12 Arunachal Pradesh 66.95 73.69 59.57
13 Nagaland 80.11 83.29 76.69
14 Manipur 79.85 86.49 73.17
15 Mizoram 91.58 93.72 89.40
16 Tripura 87.75 92.18 83.15
17 Meghalaya 75.48 77.17 73.78
18 Assam 73.18 78.81 67.27
19 West Bengal 77.08 82.67 71.16
20 Jharkhand 67.63 78.45 56.21
21 Orissa 73.45 82.40 64.36
22 Chattisgarh 71.04 81.45 60.59
23 Madhya Pradesh 70.63 80.53 60.02
24 Gujarat 79.31 87.23 70.73
27 Maharashtra 82.91 89.82 75.48
28 Andhra Pradesh 67.66 75.56 59.74
29 Karnataka 75.60 82.85 68.13
30 Goa 87.40 92.81 81.84
32 Kerala 93.91 96.02 91.98
33 Tamil Nadu 80.33 86.81 73.86
INDIA 74.04 82.14 65.46

[14]

Linguistic demographics

43% of the Hindus speak Hindi while the rest speak Assamese, Bangla, Gujarati, Kannada, Malayalam, Marathi, Tamil, Telugu, Punjabi and other languages. Almost 45% of the Muslims speak Urdu while the rest speak Assamese, Bangla, Gujarati, Kashmiri, Malayalam, Tamil, Telugu and other languages. About one-third of the Christians speak Malayalam, one-sixth speak Tamil while the rest speak a variety of languages. In total, there are 1,652 languages and dialects spoken in India.[25]

Languages of India by number of native speakers as per the 2001 census[26]
Rank Language Speakers Percentage
1 Hindi dialects[27] 422,048,642 41.03%
2 Bengali 83,369,769 8.11%
3 Telugu 74,002,856 7.19%
4 Marathi 71,936,894 6.99%
5 Tamil 60,793,814 5.91%
6 Urdu 51,536,111 5.01%
7 Gujarati 46,091,617 4.48%
8 Kannada 37,924,011 3.69%
9 Malayalam 33,066,392 3.21%
10 Oriya 33,017,446 3.21%
11 Punjabi 29,102,477 2.83%
12 Assamese 13,168,484 1.28%
13 Maithili 12,179,122 1.18%
14 Bhili/Bhilodi 9,582,957 0.93%
15 Santali 6,469,600 0.63%
16 Kashmiri 5,527,698 0.54%
17 Nepali 2,871,749 0.28%
18 Gondi 2,713,790 0.26%
19 Sindhi 2,535,485 0.25%
20 Konkani 2,489,015 0.24%
21 Dogri 2,282,589 0.22%
22 Khandeshi 2,075,258 0.20%
23 Kurukh 1,751,489 0.17%
24 Tulu 1,722,768 0.17%
25 Meitei (Manipuri) 1,466,705* 0.14%
26 Bodo 1,350,478 0.13%
27 Khasi 1,128,575 0.112%
28 Mundari 1,061,352 0.105%
29 Ho 1,042,724 0.103%

N.B. The percentage of speakers of each language for 2001 has been worked out on the total population of India (excluding Mao-Maram, Paomata and Purul subdivisions of Senapati District of Manipur state due to cancellation of census results).

* Excludes Mao-Maram, Paomata and Purul of Senapati District.

Largest cities

Template:Largest cities of India

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.

File:TFR-India-SRS-96-98.png
Chart showing the Total Fertility Rate of Indian states (SRS survey 1996-98)[28]
Total Population

1,166,079,217 (July 2009 est. CIA)[29] 1,028.7 million (2001 Census final figures, March 1 enumeration and estimated 124,000 in areas of Manipur that could not be covered in the enumeration)

File:India population density map en.svg
Map showing the population density of each district in India.
Rural Population

72.2%, male: 381,668,992, female: 360,948,755 (2001 Census)

Age structure

0–14 years: 30.8%, male: 188,208,196, female: 171,356,024
15–64 years: 64.3%, male: 386,432,921, female: 364,215,759
65+ years: 4.9%, male: 27,258,259, female: 30,031,289 (2007 est.)

Median age

25.1 years

Population growth rate

1.548% (2009 est.)

Birth rate

21.76 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

Death rate

6.4 deaths/1,000 population (2009 est.)

File:India literacy rate map en.svg
Map showing the literacy rate of each district in India.
Literacy rate

71.7% (Age 7 & above) [23]

Percent of the population under the poverty line

22% (2006 est.)

Unemployment Rate

7.8%

Net migration rate

−0.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.12 male(s)/female
under 10 years: 1.14 male(s)/female
15–24 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
24–64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.908 male(s)/female
total population: 1.08 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 30.15 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.) male: 34.61 deaths/1,000 live births female: 25.17 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 69.89 years
male: 67.46 years
female: 72.61 years (2007 est.)

Total fertility rate

2.72 children born/woman (2009 est.), although more up to date statistics indicate that India's TFR was 2.6 in 2008 [30] The TFR (Total number of children born per women) according to Religion in 2001 was :

Hindus — 2.0 Muslims — 2.4 Sikhs — 2.1 Christians — 2.1 Buddhists — 2.1 Jains — 1.4 Animists and Others — 2.99 Tribals — 3.16 Scheduled Castes — 2.89[cn]

Religions

Hindu 80.5% Muslim 13.4% Christian 2.3% Sikh 1.8% Buddhists 0.8% Jains 0.4% others 0.7% unspecified 0.1% (2001 Census) [31][32][33][34]

Scheduled Castes and Tribes

Scheduled Castes: 16.2% (2001 Census) Scheduled Tribes: 8.2% (2001 Census)

Languages: See Languages of India and List of Indian languages by total speakers. There are 216 languages with more than 10,000 native speakers in India. The largest of these is Hindi with some 337 million (the second largest being Bangla with some 207 million). 22 languages are recognized as official languages. In India, there are 1,652 languages and dialects in total.[25][35]

Population projections

India is projected to overtake China as the world's most populous nation by 2030. India's population growth has raised concerns that it would lead to widespread unemployment and political instability.[36][37]

Source:[38]

  • 2020: 1,326,093,000
  • 2030: 1,460,743,000
  • 2040: 1,571,715,000
  • 2050: 1,656,554,000

2020 Estimate

Source:[39]

Year Under 15 15–64 65+ Total
2000 361 604 45 1010
2005 368 673 51 1093
2010 370 747 58 1175
2015 372 819 65 1256
2020 373 882 76 1331

Ethnic groups

Template:Ethnic Groups of India The national Census of India does not recognize racial or ethnic groups within India,[40] but recognizes many of the tribal groups as Scheduled Castes and Tribes (see list of Scheduled Tribes in India). Nevertheless, modern anthropologists classify Indians as belonging to one of four major ethno-racial groups, which significantly overlap because of racial admixture between populations: Caucasoids, Australoids, Mongoloids and Negritos. The Caucasoids are largely confined to the north and generally speak Indo-Aryan languages; Australoids are found in the south and generally speak Dravidian languages; Mongoloids are largely confined to the Northeastern region of the country and for the most part, speak Tibeto-Burman languages; and Negritos are found on the Andaman Islands located on the southeastern side of the country. These speak a language known simply as Great Andamanese, a linguistic isolate not related to any known language. And finally, Austro-Asiatic languages are spoken by only tribals or Adivasis, who can be of either Australoid or Mongoloid racial stock.[41]

According to a 2009 study published by Reich et al., the modern Indian population is composed of two genetically divergent and heterogeneous populations which mixed in ancient times (about 1,200-3,500 BC), known as Ancestral North Indians (ANI) and Ancestral South Indians (ASI). ASI corresponds to the Dravidian-speaking population of southern India, whereas ANI corresponds to the Indo-Aryan-speaking population of northern India.[42][43] This demonstrates that there is a genetic basis to ethno-linguistic labels such as "Indo-Aryan" and "Dravidian".

For a list of ethnic groups in the Republic of India (as well as neighboring countries) see ethnic groups of the Indian subcontinent or the tree diagram above.

Genetics

Y-chromosome DNA

[44]

Y-Chromosome DNA Y-DNA represents the male lineage, The Indian Y-chromosome pool may be summarized as follows where haplogroups R1a, H, R2, L & NOP comprise generally more than 80% of the total chromosomes.[45]

  • H ~ 30%
  • R1a ~ 20%
  • R2 ~ 15%
  • L ~ 10%
  • NOP ~ 10% (Excluding R)
  • Other Haplogroups 15%

Mitochondrial DNA

[46]

Mitochondrial DNA mtDNA represents the female lineage. The Indian mitochondrial DNA is primarily made up of Haplogroup M[47]

Autosomal DNA

Basu et al. (2003) have concluded on the basis of results obtained from mtDNA, Y-chromosome and autosomal markers that "(1) there is an underlying unity of female lineages in India, indicating that the initial number of female settlers may have been small; (2) the tribal and the caste populations are highly differentiated; (3) the Austro-Asiatic tribals are the earliest settlers in India, providing support to one anthropological hypothesis while refuting some others; (4) a major wave of humans entered India through the northeast; (5) the Tibeto-Burman tribals share considerable genetic commonalities with the Austro-Asiatic tribals, supporting the hypothesis that they may have shared a common habitat in southern China, but the two groups of tribals can be differentiated on the basis of Y-chromosomal haplotypes; (6) the Dravidian tribals were possibly widespread throughout India before the arrival of the Indo-European-speaking nomads, but retreated to southern India to avoid dominance; (7) formation of populations by fission that resulted in founder and drift effects have left their imprints on the genetic structures of contemporary populations; (8) the upper castes show closer genetic affinities with Central Asian populations, although those of southern India are more distant than those of northern India; (9) historical gene flow into India has contributed to a considerable obliteration of genetic histories of contemporary populations so that there is at present no clear congruence of genetic and geographical or sociocultural affinities."[48]

See also

Government:

Lists:

Notes

References

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  47. Semino et al. 2000, Kivisild et al. 2003, Metspalu et al 2004, Rajkumar et al. 2005, Chandrasekar et al. 2007, Gonzalez et al. 2007
  48. http://genome.cshlp.org/content/13/10/2277.full

External links

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