Federal subjects of Russia

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Template:Politics of Russia

Russia is a federation which, as of March 1, 2008, consists of 83 "federal subjects" (members of the Federation; Russian singular субъект федерации, subyekt federatsii).[1] In 1993, when the Constitution was adopted, there were 89 federal subjects listed. By 2008 the number of federal subjects had been decreased to 83 because of mergers.

The federal subjects are of equal federal rights in the sense that they have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council (upper house of the Federal Assembly). They do, however, differ in the degree of autonomy they enjoy. Template:Tocleft

Types

Each federal subject belongs to one of the following types:

21 republics (Russian singular республика, respublika)—nominally autonomous, each has its own constitution, president, and parliament; is represented by the federal government in international affairs; and is meant to be home to a specific ethnic minority.
46 oblasts (provinces; Russian singular область, oblast')—most common type of federal subjects with federally appointed governor and locally elected legislature. Commonly named after their administrative centers.
krais (territories; Russian singular край, kray)—essentially the same as oblasts. The title "territory" is historic, originally given because they were once considered frontier regions.
autonomous oblast (autonomous province; Russian singular автономная область, avtonomnaya oblast')—the only autonomous oblast is the Jewish Autonomous Oblast
autonomous okrugs (autonomous districts; Russian singular автономный округ, avtonomny okrug)—with substantial or predominant ethnic minority.
federal cities (cities under direct jurisdiction of the Federation; Russian singular город федерального значения, gorod federal'nogo znacheniya)—major cities that function as separate regions.

List of federal subjects

The subjects have both numerical codes and two- or three-letter ISO 3166-2:RU codes. The numerical codes span from 01 to 92, although nine of them are no longer in use after mergers.

Template:List of federal subjects of Russia

Mergers

File:Russian Subjects merged.png
Federal subjects of Russia

Starting in 2005, some of the federal subjects were merged into larger territories. The merging process was finished on March 1, 2008. No new mergers have been planned since March 2008.

Original territories Date of referendum Date of merger Merger
1, 1a December 7, 2003 December 1, 2005 Perm Oblast (1) + Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug (1a) → Perm Krai
2, 2a, 2b April 17, 2005 January 1, 2007 Krasnoyarsk Krai (2) + Evenk Autonomous Okrug (2a) + Taymyr Autonomous Okrug (2b) → Krasnoyarsk Krai
3, 3a October 23, 2005 July 1, 2007 Kamchatka Oblast (3) + Koryak Autonomous Okrug (3a) → Kamchatka Krai
4, 4a April 16, 2006 January 1, 2008 Irkutsk Oblast (4) + Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug (4a) → Irkutsk Oblast
5, 5a March 11, 2007 March 1, 2008 Chita Oblast (5) + Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug (5a) → Zabaykalsky Krai

Further proposals for mergers

The following merger proposals have been made in recent years; most have since become inactive.

Proposals Federal subjects Map
6, 6a Arkhangelsk Oblast + Nenets Autonomous Okrug = Pomorsky Krai 100px 100px
7, 7a, 7b Khabarovsk Krai + Jewish Autonomous Oblast + Amur Oblast = Amur Krai 100px 100px 100px
8, 8a Magadan Oblast + Chukotka Autonomous Okrug = Magadan Krai 100px 100px
9, 9a, 9b Irkutsk Oblast + Buryat Republic + Zabaykalsky Krai = Baykalsky Krai 100px 100px 100px
10, 10a, 10b Tyumen Oblast + Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug + Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug = Tyumen Krai 100px 100px 100px
11, 11a, 11b Novosibirsk Oblast + Omsk Oblast + Tomsk Oblast = Novosibirsk Krai 100px 100px 100px
12, 12a, 12b Kemerovo Oblast + Altai Republic + Altai Krai = Altai Krai 100px 100px 100px
13 St. Petersburg + Leningrad Oblast = Leningrad Oblast 100px 100px
14 Moscow + Moscow Oblast = Moscow Oblast 100px 100px
15, 15a Yaroslavl Oblast + Kostroma Oblast = Yaroslavl Krai 100px 100px
16, 16a Novgorod Oblast + Pskov Oblast = Novgorod Krai 100px 100px
17, 17a Krasnodar Krai + Republic of Adygea = Krasnodar Krai 100px 100px
18, 18a Republic of Ingushetia + Chechen Republic = Checheno-Ingushetia 100px 100px

See also

References

  1. Constitution, Article 65

Sources

Template:Federal subjects of Russia

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