Federal subjects of Russia
Russia is a federation which, as of March 1, 2008, consists of 83 "federal subjects" (members of the Federation; Russian singular субъект федерации, subyekt federatsii). In 1993, when the Constitution was adopted, there were 89 federal subjects listed. By 2008 the number of federal subjects had been decreased to 83 because of mergers.
The federal subjects are of equal federal rights in the sense that they have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council (upper house of the Federal Assembly). They do, however, differ in the degree of autonomy they enjoy. Template:Tocleft
Each federal subject belongs to one of the following types:
|21 republics (Russian singular республика, respublika)—nominally autonomous, each has its own constitution, president, and parliament; is represented by the federal government in international affairs; and is meant to be home to a specific ethnic minority.|
|46 oblasts (provinces; Russian singular область, oblast')—most common type of federal subjects with federally appointed governor and locally elected legislature. Commonly named after their administrative centers.|
|9 krais (territories; Russian singular край, kray)—essentially the same as oblasts. The title "territory" is historic, originally given because they were once considered frontier regions.|
|1 autonomous oblast (autonomous province; Russian singular автономная область, avtonomnaya oblast')—the only autonomous oblast is the Jewish Autonomous Oblast|
|4 autonomous okrugs (autonomous districts; Russian singular автономный округ, avtonomny okrug)—with substantial or predominant ethnic minority.|
|2 federal cities (cities under direct jurisdiction of the Federation; Russian singular город федерального значения, gorod federal'nogo znacheniya)—major cities that function as separate regions.|
List of federal subjects
The subjects have both numerical codes and two- or three-letter ISO 3166-2:RU codes. The numerical codes span from 01 to 92, although nine of them are no longer in use after mergers.
Starting in 2005, some of the federal subjects were merged into larger territories. The merging process was finished on March 1, 2008. No new mergers have been planned since March 2008.
|Original territories||Date of referendum||Date of merger||Merger|
|1, 1a||December 7, 2003||December 1, 2005||Perm Oblast (1) + Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug (1a) → Perm Krai|
|2, 2a, 2b||April 17, 2005||January 1, 2007||Krasnoyarsk Krai (2) + Evenk Autonomous Okrug (2a) + Taymyr Autonomous Okrug (2b) → Krasnoyarsk Krai|
|3, 3a||October 23, 2005||July 1, 2007||Kamchatka Oblast (3) + Koryak Autonomous Okrug (3a) → Kamchatka Krai|
|4, 4a||April 16, 2006||January 1, 2008||Irkutsk Oblast (4) + Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug (4a) → Irkutsk Oblast|
|5, 5a||March 11, 2007||March 1, 2008||Chita Oblast (5) + Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug (5a) → Zabaykalsky Krai|
Further proposals for mergers
The following merger proposals have been made in recent years; most have since become inactive.
- Subdivisions of Russia
- Federal districts of Russia
- Economic regions of Russia
- History of the administrative division of Russia
- Flags of the federal subjects of Russia
- List of heads of federal subjects of Russia
- List of Russian federal subjects by GRP
- Constitution, Article 65