Flora Dugog otoka

Izvor: Wikinfo na Hrvatskom jeziku
Skoči na: orijentacija, traži
HrvatGrb.png

Flora Dugog otoka (alge i kserofiti): Ova originalna studija se kao otvoreni izvornik, dozvolom auktora može slobodno kopirati uz citat bez izmjena.

  • WikiFLORA ADRIATICA: dr. A.-Z. Lovric,- Dugi otok (vegetation), Herbarium Adriaticum - ADRZ 2001, Selcina 10, Zagreb-Sesvete, HR-10360, Croatia
  • M. Rac & A.Ž. Lovrić: Vegetation and phytonyms in Dugi island, Telašćica islets, and near benthos in Northeastern Adriatic
  • reprinted in: Periodicum Biologorum 105 / 4: 439-452, Zagreb 2003

ABSTRACT

Dugi's flora (algae and xerophytes): The marine flora in Dugi island and adjacent islets of Telašćica reserve in northeastern Adriatic was scarcely studied so far including 64 algae only, and the zoning of their phytocoenoses was nearly unknown. The main goal of this survey is to list the algal and halophytic flora of Dugi shores and of adjacent 52 islets. In the studied phytobenthos of Dugi island and adjacent 52 islets we registered 272 marine taxa: 164 rhodophytes (58 %), 60 phaeophytes (23 %), 45 chlorophytes (16 %), and 3 seagrasses. This phytobenthos is of average diversity in Adriatic, with a R/P ratio of 2.8. The studied phytobenthos is rich in Posidonia grasslands on the banks between near islets and in the bays Soline and Telašćica; around southernmost islets and SE. sea-cliffs at Adriatic offing prevail Cystoseira formations and luxuriant coralligene including 31 calcified algae. In Dugi we detected 25 terrestrial phytocoenoses and 18 benthic ones; this island is mostly covered by Mediterranean vegetation, but in Telašćica Reserve and southern islets the xeric Thermo-mediterranean belt predominates. In the land flora of Dugi we registered also 96 additional southern taxa, and its present flora counts 725 vascular taxa. Benthic and land vegetation of Telašćica Reserve and near islets is almost similar as in adjacent Kornati Archipelago, and vegetation in northern part of Dugi at port Božava is more comparable with vegetation in northern islands Rab and Lošinj.

  • Keywords: Adriatic, islands, flora, algae, halophytes, xerophytes, maquis, phytocoenoses

Sažetak

Morska flora Dugog otoka i zaljeva Telašćice je donedavna bila slabo poznata tek po 64 vrste alga, a zonacija fitocenoza je uglavnom ostala nepoznata. Glavna svrha ovog pregleda je popis flore morskih alga i obalnih halofita oko Dugog i na okolnih pedesetak otočića. Tu je u podmorju nadjeno 272 vrste alga, od toga 164 crvenih, 60 smedjih, 45 zelenih alga i 3 morske cvjetnice, a omjer 2,8 crvenih/smedjih je osrednji za Jadran. U kopnenoj flori je sad nadjeno još 96 dodatnih južnih vrsta, čime je poznata flora Dugog otoka već narasla na 725 vaskularnih vrsta. U fitobentosu se ističu livade posidonije najviše u uvalama Telašćica i Soline, a uz vanjske klisuraste obale i južne otoke prama pučini su bujna naselja cistozira i koraligena s raznim ovapnjelim algama. U vegetaciji je nadjeno 25 kopnenih fitocenoza i 18 podmorskih. Kopnena i morska vegetacija Telašćice je većinom slična kao u susjednim Kornatima, a sjeverni dio Dugoga oko Božave je botanički sličniji Rabu i Lošinju.

  • Ključne riječi: Jadran, otoci, flora, alge, halofiti, kserofiti, makija, fitocenoze

Uvod: Područje istraživanja

Dugi otok (talij. Isola Grossa, latin. Tilagus, grč. Tylagos) je najveći vanjski otok u zadarskoj otočnoj skupini sjeverne Dalmacije. Izdužen je 43 km smjerom sjeverozapad-jugoistok i širok do 4,6 km, površine 124 kv.km i ima 2873 stanovnika.

Zemljopisne značajke

Dugi se pruža smjerom sjeverozapad - jugoistok izmedju otoka Molata i južnijih Kornata. Ima oblik vapnenačkog brdskog grebena s najvišim vrhom Vela straža (338 m), a izmedju tih brda su manja kraška polja Velo jezero, Arnjevo polje, Stivanje polje, Sridnje polje itd. U otočnom krasu su brojne špilje: Strašna peć, Kozja peć, Veli badanj, Crvene rupe i Pećina. Na otoku nema stalnih izvora ni vodotoka, osim više lokava i sezonskih izvora koji ljeti presuše. Južni je dio otoka kamenjar, srednji i zapadni obrastao je tvrdolisnom makijom, a mjestimice ima šumica crnike i borova. Jugozapadne su obale Dugoga većinom visoke i strme, sjeveroistočne uglavnom niže i položite s nizom uvala i naselja, a pješčanim žalima se ističu uvale Solišćica, Pantera i Telašćica. Uz obale okolo Dugoga je nanizano pedesetak otočića, npr. Golac, Bršćak, Magarčić, Mali i Veli Planatak, Utra, Mrtovnjak, Luški, Krkneta, Lagnići, Mežanj, Katina ...itd.

Povijesne naznake

Dugi otok je naseljen već od predpovijesti, što dokazuju paleolitski arheonalazi, pa kemene gomile (kurgani) i potom prapovjesni tragovi ilirskih gradina. Od 3. stoljeća pr.Kr. otok ulazi pod vlast Rimljana. Na istaknutim vrhovima po otoku nalaze se ostaci ilirskih utvrđenih naselja i kameni grobni humci. Na prevlaci Mala proversa bio je prostran rimski ladanjski dvorac (villa rustica), koji je dijelom istražen i konzerviran. Iz starohrvatskog razdoblja očuvane su dijelom crkvice, kamene kućice i grobovi. Dugi otok spominje Konstantin Porfirogenet sredinom 10. stoljeća pod imenom Pizuh, dosad očuvan u nazivu položaja Čuh uz zaljev Telašćicu. U 10.-11. stoljeću otok je zapisan kao Insula Tilagus koji je naziv očuvan u slaviziranom imenu zaljeva Telašćice. Ime Veli otok zabilježeno je prvi put glagoljicom 1460. Na otoku su sljedeća naselja: Sali je glavna luka i najveći gradić na otoku, pa još obalna sela Zaglav, Žman, Savar, Brbinj, Dragove, Soline, Božava, Veli Rat, Verunić i Polje. Glavne su gospodarske grane turizam, ribarstvo, poljodjelstvo, vinogradi, maslinici i stočarstvo.

Prirodne znamenitosti

Dugi otok ima niz prirodnih osobitosti, a posebno se ističe Park prirode Telašćica na južnom djelu otoka, Velo i Malo jezero kod Žmana, pa uvale Solinšćica i Saharun. Na Dugom otoku se nalaze 3 jezera: dva periodička slatka i stalno slano u Telašćici. U blizini oko Dugog otoka se nalazi pedesetak manjih otočića i hridi.

  • Park prirode Telašćica (latin. Tilagus, talij. Tajero) obuhvaća 70,5 km² najjužnijeg dijela Dugog otoka i 13 susjednih manjih otočića.
  • Špilja Strašna peć je najveća na otoku, otkrivena je 1898. kod sela Savar na visini od 70m i danas se nastoji turistički valorizirati.
  • Svjetionik Veli Rat: na zapadnom rtu otoka, je najviši svjetionik na Jadranu visine 42m i jedan od najstarijih izgradjen pred 150 godina.

Park prirode Telašćica

Zaštićena uvala Telašćica leži na jugoistočnoj obali Dugog otoka. Zbog pejsažne ljepote i bogatstva značajne flore i faune, ova je uvala s 13 susjednih otoka i otočića službeno proglašena Parkom prirode 1988. Ukupna površina Parka prirode je 70,50 km2 i to 25,95 km2 na Dugom otoku i susjednim otočićima i 44,55 km2 u podmorju. To je jedan od najvećih i najbolje zaklonjenih zaljeva na jadranskim otocima, nenaseljen i još uglavnom očuvan u prirodnom stanju. Glavne geomorfološke osobitosti rezervata su slano jezero Mir na jugoistočnom rtu i nizovi obalnih klisura visine do 160m i dubine do 80m duž južne vanjske obale s gnjezdištem raznih ptica. U tom rezervatu su izvršena najdetaljnija botanička istraživanja unutar Dugog otoka. U okolici je na brežuljcima bogata mediteranska vegetacija s oko 500 biljnih vrsta i jednako bogatom faunom, a najviši vrh u parku je brdo Mrzlovica (198 m). Podmorski bentos broji blizu 300 alga i još više životinjskih vrsta. Preko 2.500 sunčanih sati godišnje, srednja siječanjska temperatura viša od 7°C i srednja godišnja iznad 16°C su oznake klime tog prostora. Zimi more ima približno 13°C, a ljeti oko 23°C.

Introduction

Dugi island lies in northeastern Adriatic, 20 km in southwest of port Zadar; the delimiting geographical coordinates of studied area are: N = 43°35' - 43°42', E = 15°34' - 15°45'. Around the main island Dugi lie also 52 minor islets, and 12 of them at southeastern shore of Dugi are included in Natural Reserve of Telašćica. The unique consistent contribution on some algae at Dugi was published by VOUK (3), followed by minor additions on phaeophytes (4, 5). Therefore previous scarce knowledge of local phytobenthos included 58 macroalgae at Dugi and 6 additional ones at near islet Lavdara, i.e. a poor assemblage of 64 algae only.

Among major Adriatic islands, Dugi was the last one studied, and the first details on its plants was a dozen trees and shrubs mentioned by BAUMGARTNER (6). Its main floral studies started 1928 by CUFODONTIS (7) who registered 124 vascular taxa there, then the largest survey of vascular flora in Dugi by PEVALEK (8) added 421 new taxa there i.e. 2/3 of known flora in Dugi. Minor additions to its flora are 19 weeds and ruderals (9, 10), and other 55 additional taxa (11). The others mention Dugi in general vegetation surveys (12), and in monographs of certain taxa (13, 14). The former list of vascular flora in Dugi had 629 taxa, and now it reached 725 ones.

The present botanical survey covers the shores of Dugi island with near 52 islets and dozen minute reefs, and surrounding seafloors. Our preliminary botanical insight in this island group started in 1974 by coastal halophytes, and detailed studies were completed to 2002 from northernmost port Božava to southernmost islet Tajer. The complete halophytic floras of surrounding minor islets were registered; macroalgae and halophytes were registered along island shores to -7m depths, and sporadically by diving to -40m in representative contrasting profiles. For major depths we included the published reports of former dredgings (4, 5), and some algae dragged by nets and offered by local fishermen. The most detailed insight on phytobenthos and halophytes was in the islets of Telašćica reserve.

Telašćica Natural Reserve

A special goal of detailed studies was the Natural Reserve of Telašćica Bay in southeastern end of Dugi. Between the major islands Dugi and Kornat lie 19 islets, mostly included in Telašćica Reserve: the major ones with apical dendroflora are Katina, Gornja Aba, Donja Aba, Veli Buć, Tajer, Farfarikula, Burnji Školj, and Donji Školj; aerosaline lower ones almost with herbaceous halophytes only are Mali Buć, Katinica, Dragunara, Abica, Mala Sestrica, Taljurić, Mali Garmenjak, Korotan, Galijula, and Gozdenjak. The southernmost islet Tajer is also the driest site in that area with scarce precipitations mostly in winter (677 mm/year), and it is also evident in its xeric vegetation.

Lagunar and freshwater sites

The numerous sinkholes and Karst valleys in Adriatic islands often included coastal lagoons and inland tarns; therefore in precedent centuries dozen major islands of Adriatic included a series of swampy and lagunar sites with a southern hygrothermic flora. During recent decennia, most of these “bad and inutile sites” are eliminated, either by artificial desiccation and agrarian meliorations, or someones are transformed in artificial accumulations with very variable waterlevel e.g. in Krk and Cres islands. The last seminatural lagoons in Adriatic archipelago with some relicts of original swamp vegetation persisted only in islands Pag, Dugi, and Mljet; their conservation is very urgent. In Dugi occur 3 lakes: Slano jezero (= Salt Lake) in southernmost cape of Dugi, and two perodical subsaline lagoons, i.e. Malo Jezero (Minor Lagoon) and Veliko jezero (Big Lagoon) with a brackish spring, both in Žman valley amid Dugi island. In karstic substrata of Dugi, other springs and brooks are lacking and freshwater habitats are rare, except the major tarn Njarica at Telašćica bay and some minor pools at port Sali.

Surrounding seafloors

Extensive flat bottoms around Dugi island are the eastermost part of Upper Adriatic shelf, and nearshore depths on both sides of Dugi are subequal, descending to 50-70m toward offing, and also toward mainlands. The unique deeper exception there is at the southernmost islets Sestrice and Garmenjak,Landwards in Sridnji channel, between the islands Lavdara, Iž and Žverinac occur some offshore banks 9m to 13m deep with abundant phaeophytes. Dugi includes the flat detritic bottoms with seagrass, developed in some inlets along its NE. shores and on submarine banks between them and nearshore islets. In open SW. shores and at southern islets are abrupt rocky bottoms with luxuriant coralligene and phaeophytes, chiefly at islets Tajer and Garmenjak where abrupt cliffy bottoms descend to 80-95m at the northern margin of deep Jabuka pit in central Adriatic.

Flora alga i halofita (Algae & halophytes)

Morske alge (Phytobenthos)

U podmorju uz Dugi i susjedne otočiće su nadjene 272 svojte alga: 164 crvenih, 60 smedjih, 45 zelenih alga i 3 morske cvjetnice. Tu su posebno bogate cistozire sa 14 vrsta, te Corallinaceae s 31 ovapnjelih vrsta, od kojih su neke rijetke u Jadranu: (In the studied phytobenthos around Dugi island and at numerous surrounding islets we registered 272 marine taxa: 164 rhodophytes, 60 phaeophytes, 45 chlorophytes, and 3 seagrasses. In the enclosed Table 2, algal nomenclature is mostly after recent Mediterranean reviews (16, 19, 20). Except precedent dredgings (4, 5), and some deep algae dragged by nets and offered by local fishermen, the deeper circalittoral benthos under 50m is so far scacely known, and an increasing diversity chiefly in rhodophytes is expectable there. Among phaeophytes, there occur a considerable diversity with 14 different taxa of Cystoseira. Local richness of 31 calcified algae in southern shores of Dugi and at near open islets is very remarkable. Beside usual ones, there occur also some interesting calcified rhodophytes): e.g. Amphiroa beauvoisii Lamouroux, Corallina elongata Ellis & Solander, Lithophyllum papillosum (Zanardini) Foslie, L. strictaeforme (Areschoug.) Hauck, L. trochanter (Bory) Huvé, Peyssonellia rosa-marina Boudour. & Denizot, and the most interesting incrustations of calcified chlorophytes Codium coralloides Kütz., Halimeda tuna (Ellis & Solander) Lamouroux, and Valonia incrustans s.lat. var. crustacea Kuck. (V. caespitula Zanardini) at open stormy shores.

Močvarna flora (Swamp plants)

U manjim močvarama na Dugom raste niz posebnih južnih (*) higrofita iz Sredozemlja i subtropa, a najviše ih ima u lokvama Žmana i Njarica: (We studied in detail the relict vegetation of insular swamps in Dugi, and we registered there a series of interesting southern hygrophytes so far mostly unknown (symbol *) in Dugi island, and rare elsewhere in SW. Croatia. Especially rich swamp flora occurs in subsaline lakes of Žman valley, and in Njarica tarn at Telašćica bay, including the): endemic Succisella petteri* (Kerner & Murbeck) Beck, and also Alisma lanceolatum With., Aristolochia insularis* Nardi & Arrigoni, Arundo donax* L., Baldellia ranunculoides* (L.) Parlatore, Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla, Bryonia cretica* L., Calystegia sepium subsp. roseata* Brum, Chlorocyperus badius* (Desf.) Pall. (Cyperus thermalis Dumm.), Cichorium calvum* (Schulz-Bipont) Schweinfurt. (C. divaricatum Schousb.), Cynosurus elegans* Desf. (Chrysurus gracilis Morris), Holoschoenus romanus* (L.) Link. (Schoenus australis L.), Potamogeton siculus* (Tenore) Gussone, Ranunculus aquatilis L. s.lat., R. trilobus* Desf. (R. sardous subsp. mediterraneus Gris.), Rubus heteromorphus* (Ripart) Gerb., Salix micans* Andr., Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani (Gmelin) Palla (Schoenus glaucus Sm.), Tamarix dalmatica* Baum, Tamus communis L. subsp. cretica* (L.) Nym. (T. orientalis Boiss.), Taraxacum tenuifolium* Hoppe, Typha domingensis* (Pers.) Steud. (T. australis Thonb.& Schum.), Ulmus canescens* Melville, Vitex agnus-castus L., Zannichellia major (Boen.) Rchb., etc.

Flore otočića (Islet florulae)

Northern Dalmatia around ports Zadar and Šibenik includes a very dissected archipelago with a rich assemblage of more than 200 minor islets with interesting distribution patterns of their floras. Till now the consistent botanical data for such minor islets were published only in near National Park of Kornati Archipelago; for many other islets very scarce or not any botanical indications were available. In the enclosed Table 1, we listed the xero-halophytic florulas in numerous minor islets around Dugi, from westernmost Tramerka to southernmost Tajer; for other taller and wooded islands of this group as Dugi, Žverinac, Rava, Lavdara, and Katina we do not list complete dendroflora, but only plants from their lower maritime belt with predominating halophytes. In other 36 minor islets without woods, whose ecology and phytogeography is more or less divergent from the main island Dugi, nearly complete local florula is listed here, as registered by our iterative field insights in 1998-2002. A dozen minute reefs without vascular flora are not listed here.

Except inland dendroflora on higher and wooded islands Dugi, Tramerka, Žverinac, Rava, and Lavdara, in other lower islets with predominating herbaceous xero-halophytes we registered together 123 vascular taxa. Among them 19 ones are southern xerophytes and halophytes, very rare or absent in the main island Dugi (marked by an asterisk* in Table 1). The vegetation in taller and wooded islets Tramerka, Žverinac, Rava, Lavdara, and Katina is mostly a poorer copy of this one in Dugi island. Diversity and peculiarity of islet florulas around Dugi increases from NW. to SE.; the poorest and most banal local flora occur in westernmost Tramerka and near islets. The most divergent and peculiar florulas occur in islets Tajer, Garmenjak, and Korotan of Telašćica Reserve, including southern xerophytes and halophytes lacking in Dugi island but present in other southern islets of central Adriatic.

  • Flore sudsjedna 4 veća otoka su sličnije Dugom - usp. Tabela 1, a u otočnim uvalama su značajne vrste: (Florulas of studied islets around Dugi are summarized in Table 1. In general, halophytic floras of sheltered inlets in Dugi, and of near aerosaline islets are mostly different. Chiefly in sheltered inlets of Dugi occur): Euphorbia peplis L., Hordeum marinum Huds., Medicago litoralis Rohde, Parapholis incurva (L.) Hubb., Plantago coronopus L., Polygonum maritimum L., and Spergularia salina Presl., that are nearly absent in surrounding islets. Vrste raširene na otočićima i obalama Dugog otoka (Other salt-resisting taxa are frequent both in shores of Dugi and in some adjacent islets) e.g. Beta maritima L., Cakile maritima Scop., Catapodium balearicum* (Wllk.) Scholz, Crithmum maritimum L., Cymodocea nodosa* (Ucria) Asch., Dittrichia viscosa* (L.) Greut., Elytrigia atherica * (Link.) Kerguelen: C. Martinez, Euphorbia paralias L., Glaucium flavum Crantz, Limonium cancellatum L., L. narbonense* Mill., Plantago crassifolia Forskal., Posidonia oceanica* (L.) Delile, Reichardia picroides (L.) Roth., Silene vulgaris (Mönch.) Garcke subsp. suffrutescens* Greut.& al., Sonchus glaucescens Jordan., etc.
  • Zasoljeni topliji otočići uz Dugi sadrže 18 kserofita i halofita koji većinom izostaju na samom Dugom otoku, * + kurziv = novi za ovdašnju floru: (Aerosaline islets in lower maritime slopes include 18 xeric or halophytic taxa that are mostly absent in main island Dugi, or there occur rarely in southernmost aerosaline sea-cliffs): Aethionema saxatile (L.) R.Br. subsp. scopulorum* (Ronn.) Anders., Allium commutatum* Gussone (A. bimetrale M.Gan.), Atriplex prostrata* Bouch. (A. microtheca C.A.Meyer), Avena aterantha* Presl. (A. pilosa M.Bieb.)., Ceratonia siliqua L., Convolvulus cneorum L., Corydalis acaulis* (Wulfen) Pers, Crataegus monogyna L. subsp. aegaeica* (Pojar.) Franco (C. insegnae Bertol.), Daucus gummifer* All. (D. maritimus Lam.), Euphorbia dendroides L., Inula crithmoides L. subsp. mediterranea* Kerguelen (I. acutifolia Pasqal.), Limonium anfractum* (Salmon) Salmon, L. narbonense* Mill., Lotus cytisoides L., Muscari commutatum* Guss., Narcissus italicus* Ker.-Gawl., Olea europaea L. subsp. buxifolia* (Mill.) Nym., Pistacia chia* DC. (P. lentiscus subsp. penetrans Radić), Sarcocornia perennis* (Mill.) Scott (Salicornia radicans Sm.), Solanum decipiens* Opiz., Urginea maritima* (L.) Baker, and Vincetoxicum croaticum* Jord.& Four. Among islets around Dugi, the most interesting and peculiar florula have the southern ones in Telašćica Reserve, especially islets Tajer and Korotan.

Kserofiti Telašćice

Najtoplija južna Telašćica na Dugom ima i najviše južnih kserofita, gdje * + kurziv znači nove dodatke flori Dugog otoka: (Telašćica Reserve has the most xeric flora in Dugi, and some southern xerophytes at northern limit of areas are mostly restricted to this driest SE. end of Dugi island, asterisk* = new to Dugi): Agrimonia grandis* (Andr.) Aschers.& Graebn. (A. graeca Boiss.& Sartor.), Allium subhirsutum L., Alyssum pulvinare* Velenov., Arisarum vulgare* Targ.-Tozz., Carlina graeca* (Held.& Sartor.) Boiss., Carthamus baeticus* Boiss.& Reuter, Cerastium balearicum* Hermann, Cichorium intybus L. subsp. glabratum* (Presl.) Wagen. (C. illyricum Borb.), Coronilla valentina* L., Crataegus monogyna subsp. aegaeica*, Daucus carota L. subsp. major* (Vis.) Thellung, Eryngium creticum* Lam., Euphorbia dendroides, Fraxinus argentea* Lois. (F. pseudornus Steud.), Hedera taurica* Carr. (H. helix subsp. poetarum Nyman), Hyparrhenia hirta (L.) Stapf., Lupinus lacromensis* Horvatic, Muscari commutatum*, Narcissus italicus*, Prasium majus L. i Sedum sediforme (Jacq.) Pau. (S. altissimum Poir.). Skoro sva divlja dendroflora Dugog je tvrdolisna uz rijetke listopadne iznimke: (Nearly complete dendroflora of Dugi is evergreen, and rare Submediterranean deciduous taxa there are) e.g. Celtis australis L., Fraxinus ornus L., Paliurus spina-christi Mill. i Vitex agnus-castus L.

  • Kserofiti južnih stijena: Ini južniji kserofiti na Dugom su uglavnom ograničeni na toplo-suhe stijene uz južne obale izmedju rta Lopata i Belvedir (Other rare southern xerophytes in Dugi are restricted to subvertical sea-cliffs at southeastern shore between capes Lopata and Belvedir): Aethionema saxatile subsp. scopulorum*, Allium commutatum*, Alyssoides graeca* (Reut.) Jav., Anthyllis aegaea* Turrill (A. splendens Willd.), Avena aterantha*, Campanula pyramidalis* L., Centaurea ragusina L. s.lat., Convolvulus cneorum L., Coronilla valentina subsp. pentaphylla* (Desf.) Batter. (C. glauca L.), Corydalis acaulis, Cymbalaria pallida* (Ten.) Wettst., Daucus gummifer*, Ephedra foeminea Forskal., Filago eriocephala* Gussone (F. lanuginosa Req.), Helichrysum pseudolitoreum* Fiori, Inula verbascifolia* Hauskn., Lotus cytisoides, Melica magnolii* Grenier & Godron, Olea europaea subsp. buxifolia*, Sedum rohlenae* Horak (S. imbricatum Maly), Silene vulgaris subsp. suffrutescens*, Tanacetum cinerariifolium (Trev.) Schulz-Bip., Teucrium capitatum* L., and T. fruticans* L.
  • Dolomiti: U unutrašnjosti dugog su florno značajni dolomitni brežuljci Mala Gospa (187 m) iznad Božave s borovim šumicama gdje npr. rastu: (Among interior of Dugi, the most interesting botanical site are dolomitic hills in northern part of Dugi at port Božava, e.g Mala Gospa hill 187 m, including minor subnatural pinewoods with): Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. dalmatica* (Vis.) Franco, Fraxinus ornus L. subsp. garganica* (Ten.) Hegi (F. halepensis Steud.), Cerasus cupaniana* (Ten.) Nyman (Prunus baldaccii Penzes), Erica manipuliflora Salisb. (E. verticillata Forskal.), Genista dalmatica Bartling, Scorzonera austriaca* Willd., Sedum orientale* Boiss. (S. dinaricum M.Gan.), and Asplenium csikii* Kümm.& Andr. The coolest sites of Dugi in hill tops and fresh NE slope have no specific dendroflora that is mostly evergreen Mediterranean one as elsewhere in Dugi. However local grasslands on uppermost windswept ridges above 200m in Dugi are marked by some Submediterranean semi-xeric taxa: Astragalus muelleri Steud.& Hoch., Botryochloa ischaemum (L.) Keng, Festuca illyrica* Markg.-.Dfg., Pilosella florentina (All.) Gebr., Satureia montana L., Sesleria tenuifolia Schrad., and Stipa eriocaulis Borbas.
  • Ine rijetke dopunske svojte (* + kurziv) su sad nadjene i drugdje na Dugom otoku npr.: (Other rare, additional (*), or interesting taxa we registered also in other inland sites across Dugi island e.g.): Buglossides sibthorpii* (Gris.) John., Capsella rubella* Reuter, Catapodium rigidum* (L.) Hubbard: Dony, Convolvulus cantabricus* L., Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter, Elymus hispidus* (Opiz) Melderis, Foeniculum vulgare L. subsp. piperitum* (Ucria) Aschers., Galium corrudifolium* Vill. (G. adriaticum Ronnig.), Lotus tenuis Waldst.& Kit.: Willd., Onosma visianii* Clem., Ophrys apifera Huds., Orchis purpurea Huds., Ornithogalum refractum* Kit.: Schl., Polypodium interjectum* Shivas (P. vulgare subsp. prionodes Roth.), Pteridium tauricum* Grosg. (P. aquilinum subsp. brevipes Tausch.), Pyrus spinosa Forskal., Quercus virgiliana* Ten. (Q. dalmatica Radić), Sedum acre L. subsp. neglectum* (Ten.) Rouy, Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn., Smilax aspera L. subsp. mauretanica* (Desf.) Nyman, Taraxacum gasparrinii* (Tin.) Lojac. In ruderal rocky slopes at NE. ports of Dugi occur also naturalized Carpobrotus acinaciformis* (L.) Bol. (Mesembrianthemum rubrocinctum Eck.& Zeyh.), Opuntia compressa* (Salm.) Macb., and Yucca recurvifolia* Salisb. (Y. pendula Sieb.).

Plant communities (Fitocenoze)

Except former partial data on local scrub (12) and ruderals (9, 10), a consistent review of plant communities in Dugi was almost lacking. After all precedent studies, a satisfactory general insight in Dugi's main habitats is now available, including 25 terrestrial phytocoenoses and 18 benthic ones.

Mediterranean xerophytes

Submediterranean deciduous woods in Dugi island are completely absent, and evergreen dendroflora reaches to northernmost cape and to main peaks of this island including northern islets. The main widespread woods across Dugi and in near major islets Tramerka, Žverinac, Rava, and Lavdara is Mediterranean evergreen climax Orno-Qurcetum ilicis Horvatić (1956) 1958. Due to fires and grazing, it is mosaically alternating with degraded frutescent garrigues od Cisto-Ericion Horvatić 1958 group. Among them, the main scrub types in northern part at port Božava and Žverinac is Clematido-Spartietum juncei (Ozenda 1966) Loisel 1976 and in fresh valleys also Cisto-Ericetum arboreae Horvatić 1958; in middle parts of Dugi the scrublands of Erico-Rosmarinetum Horvatić 1958 prevail. Among the secondary replacing grasslands on Dugi, Žverinac, and Rava, the widespread community is Stipo-Salvietum officinalis Horvatić 1957, and in grazed rockfields the prickly ruderals of Scolymo-Marrubietum incani Horvatić 1950 are frequent. In areas of recent fires they are replaced by Aristello-Brometum condensati Horvatić 1972, and on upper windswept ridges Satureio-Botryochloetum ischaemi Horvat 1956 occurs.

In the driest southeastern areas of Dugi island in Telašćica Reserve, and in surrounding islets other more xeric phytocoenoses of southern Thermomediterranean types prevail. The main woods there is evergreen maquis Myrto-Pistacietum lentisci (Mol. 1936) Bolos 1962, with enclaves of Oleo-Juniperetum phoeniceae (Lakušić 1972) Brullo & al. 1983 in sheltered inlets. In the driest southern islets e.g. on Tajer, and in the hottest southern escarpments of main Dugi, xeric summer-deciduous (wintergreen) scrub Asparago-Euphorbietum dendroidis (Guin.& Drou. 1944) Eichenberg 2001 without evergreens grows. Large areas of this warmer belt in Dugi are now covered by the secondary plantations of Pinus halepensis Mill., resulting by iterative forest fires. The main replacing grassland in this southern area at Telašćica is Asphodelo-Chrysopogonetum grylli Horvatić 1958 on exposed hills and islet ridges, and Brachypodio-Hyparrhenietum hirtae Horvatić 1961 in hot southern slopes.

Swamp plants (Močvarno bilje)

Beside islands Pag and Mljet, swamp phytocoenoses in Adriatic Archipelago are the best conserved in Dugi island, chiefly in Žman valley swamps and Njarica tarn at Telašćica bay, and minor fragments in some pools at port Sali. They include an interesting southern series of Mediterranean swampy communities, absent in cooler Croatian mainlands. In wet alluvia at Žman some residual fragments of Mediterranean carrwoods Ulmus canescens & Salix micans persisted, alternating with swampy scrub Rubo-Viticetum agnicasti Lakusić & al. (1972) 1980, surrounded by wet meadows of Molinio-Hordeion secalini Horvatić (1934) 1958. Along road dikes in swamp Althaeo-Calystegietum roseatae (Tx.) Beeftink 1964 occurs. In flooding depressions, subsaline pools and drainage channels different communities of swamp sedges grow: Typho-Scirpetum tabernaemontani Br.-Bl. & Bolos 1934, Bolboscoenetum maritimi (Br.Bl. 1931) Tx. 1942, and Juncetum maritimi-acuti Horvatić 1934.

Halophytes and sea-cliffs

Flat sandy-muddy shores are usual elsewhere in Mediterranean, but in Dalmatian Karst islands and also in Dugi they are nearly absent, and rocky shores widely predominate there. The effects of aerosaline storms at Dugi are moderate if compared with northward Kvarner Archipelago perpetually exposed to strong Bora storms, and also with southward remote islands of central Adriatic exposed to abundant salt spray amid the Adriatic offing. Salt spray on main island Dugi reaches upward 10 to 25m in exposed promontories and open southern shores, and to 30m up in southernmost islets exposed to storms from Adriatic offing. Sea-cliff vegetation in Dugi is well developped southwards at Telašćica Reserve; the largest series of sea-cliffs there are coastal escarpments 50-160m tall and 7km long in SE. open shores of Dugi between capes Lopata and Belvedir, exposed to salt storms from Adriatic offing, including two communities with northernmost Adriatic sites here in Dugi island: Phagnalo-Centaureetum ragusinae Horvat (1942) 1972 in subvertical cliffs, and Asparago-Euphorbietum dendroidis (Guin.& Drou. 1944) Eichenberg 2001 in subhorizontal cliff ledges.

In oblique and subhorizontal rocky shores around Dugi, and in nearly all adjacent islets, xero-halophytes of Plantagini-Limonietum cancellati Horvatić (1934) 1939 are widespread. In shingle beaches of some inlets of Dugi, and also in islets Tramerka and Katina Euphorbio-Glaucietum flavi Horvatić (1934) 1962 occurs, and in sandy-muddy inlets of Dugi and in southern lagoon Mir Juncetum maritimi-acuti Hić. is found. In degraded shores at ports, hotels and campings, the ruderal nitro-halophytes of Cynodonti-Plantaginetum coronopi (Horvatić 1934) Tx. 1950 prevail.

Phytobenthos (Morske alge)

Except 64 algal taxa indicated in former papers (3, 4, 34), phytobenthos zoning at Dugi and near islets so far was scarcely known. In the intertidal (midlittoral) belt of Dugi and surrounding islets, stormy intertidal cliffs include the incrustations of Lithophylletum byssoidis Giaccone 1993 (Neogoniolitho-Lithophylletum (Feld.) Mol.), and in NE. shores of Dugi at sheltered and polluted ports Enteromorphion intestinalis Hadac 1948 occurs, sporadically including also the endemic Fucetum virsoidis Pignatti 1962 (assoc. Fucus virsoides Lorenz: Zalokar 1942, Horvat 1943). The mobile infralittoral bottom of Dugi inlets and sandy banks between near islets is covered by extensive grasslands of Posidonietum oceanicae (Funk 1927) Molinier 1958; in eroded and degraded mobile bottoms they are mosaically replaced by Cymodoceetum nodosae Giaccone & Pignatti 1967. Flat rocky shores exposed to surf are mostly marked by Cystoseiretum amentaceae Lorenz: Zalokar 1942; in deeper submerged rocks Cystoseiretum crinitae Molinier 1985 occurs., and in sheltered detritic bottom Rytiphloeo-Vidalietum volubilis (Lorenz: Zalokar 1942) Lovr. 1978 is found. The inlets with mobile pebbles include Acetabulario-Padinetum pavonicae (Lorenz: Zalokar 1942) Gamulin 1964, and in abrupt bottoms at SW. coast of Dugi and southern islets occur submarine stony screes with Zanardinio-Codietum bursae (Lorenz: Zalokar 1942) Lovr. 1978. The detritic bottoms with strong currents there are marked by Cystoseiretum spinosae Giaccone 1973. The stormy infralittoral cliffs of southern escarpments in Dugi and adjacent southern islets are marked by the incrustations of Phymatolitho-Corallinetum elongatae (Feldmann 1937) Molinier 1955; in stormy sea-caves and exposed overhangs Botryocladietum botryoidis Boudouresque & al. 1976 occurs.

We have a partial synecological insight only in the upper margin of deeper circalittoral phytobenthos at Dugi, closely under the lower limit of seagrasses. The deeper detritic bottoms with strong currents include Cystoseiretum zosteroidis Giaccone 1973, and shady overhangs and cave entrances are marked by Flabellio-Peyssonellietum squamariae Molinier 1958. In subvertical cliffs at southern shore of Dugi occur calcified incrustations of Lithophyllo-Halimedetum tunae Giaccone 1965, and community Palmophyllum crassum & Mesophylletum lichenoides (Giac. prov.) is found in deeper rocky escarpments at southernmost islets. In the deep coralligene complex of detritic bottoms in southward offing Lithophyllum racemus (Lamour.) Foslie, Phymatolithon calcareum (Pall.) Adey & Kibbin, and Spongites fruticulosus Kütz. occur (34).

Summary conclusions

By our finding of 96 additional taxa, the actual number of vascular plants so far registered in Dugi is 725 taxa; this is close to its expectable floral diversity, because other Adriatic islands of similar size (Lošinj, Rab, etc.) include about 800 vascular taxa. The vegetation of taller and wooded islets Tramerka, Žverinac, Rava, and Lavdara is similar to the main island Dugi with prevailing evergreen woods and a narrow maritime belt of halophytes. Minor islets with predominating halophytes are divergent from main Dugi, and the most peculiar vegetation is in dry southernmost islets Tajer and Garmenjak exposed to Adriatic offing, whose xeric flora and vegetation are rather divergent from Dugi because they are very dry and strongly aerosaline with scarce frost. In islets around Dugi occur 19 southern xerophytes and halophytes that are absent or very rare in the main island Dugi, having their northernmost sites justly here in the islets at Dugi.

In phytobenthos at Dugi island and near islets we registered 272 marine taxa: 164 rhodophytes (58 %), 60 phaeophytes (23 %), 45 chlorophytes (16 %), and 3 seagrasses. This diversity is average for Adriatic, because major numbers of algae have e.g. Kornati, Vis and Hvar (2); other nearshore islands and mainland shores of Dalmatia have a similar diversity as Dugi. The R/P ratio of Dugi is 2.8, and it is among the average ones known in Dalmatian islands so far: Sušac 3.5, Kornati 3.0, Palagruža 3.0, Hvar 2.8, Brač 2.8, Vis 2.2, Svetac 2.2, Jabuka 1.9, etc. Around Dugi occur extensive grasslands of Posidonia, chiefly on banks between surrounding islets, and its largest grasslands are in Soline Bay at NW. shore of Dugi, and in Telašćica Bay at SE. end of Dugi. The diversified formations of 14 Cystoseira occur around main island and at most adjecent islets, and a luxuriant coralligene complex with 31 calcified algae is developed chiefly in open abrupt bottoms at southernmost islets Tajer and Garmenjak.

The main conclusion from the present study is that luxuriant phytobenthos and maritime halophytes of Dugi and its southern islets of Telašćica Reserve are rather comparable with the adjacent Kornati Archipelago, that is an eastward prolongation of Dugi with near islets. Due to more humid climate, the vegetation in northern parts of Dugi at port Božava and in adjacent northwestern islets is rather different and more similar with northern islands Rab and Lošinj, and with islets in Kvarner Archipelago.

Tabela 1: Flore 36 otočića oko Dugog

Halofilne flore 36 otočića okolo Dugog otoka - oznake popisa: * = rijetki južniji kserofiti i halofiti kojih nema sjeverno od Telašćice.

  • (Florula of 36 aerosaline islets around Dugi island; - Symbols in list: * = southern xerophytes in islets, mostly absent or very rare in main Dugi).

Veći šumoviti otoci: D = donji halofilni pojas Dugog otoka, K = halofilni pojas Katine, L = halofilni pojas Lavdare, R = halofilni pojas Rave, T = halofilni pojas u Telašćici, Ž = halofilni pojas Žverinca (viši šumski pojasi Dugog, Lavdare, Rave i Žverinca tu nisu uvršteni). Ini manji otočići (dvadesetak sitnih hridi bez flore izostavljeno): Ac = Abica uz Telašćicu, Bk = Bršćak uz Ravu, Bš = Benušić uz Tramerku, DA = Donja Aba uz Telašćicu, Dr = Dragunara uz Telašćicu, DŠ = Donji školj u Telašćici, Ff = Farfarikula u Telašćici, GA = Gornja Aba uz Telašćicu, Gc = Golac uz NW. Dugi, Gl = Galijola u Telašćici, GŠ = Gornji školj u Telašćici, Gr = Garmenjak uz Telašćicu, Gz = Gozdenjak u Telašćici, Kc = Katinica uz Telašćicu, Kk = Krknata uz luku Sali, Km = Kamenjak uz Tramerku, Kr = Korotan u Telašćici, Lc = Lavdarica uz Lavdaru, Lg = Lagnić uz NW. Dugi, MB = Mali Buć uz Telašćicu, MG = Mali Garmenjak uz Telašćicu, Ms = Maslinovac uz Ravu, Mv = Mrtovnjak uz Ravu, Ob = Obljak uz Tramerku, Ph = Pohlib uz luku Sali, Pr = Planarka kod Dragove, Pt = Planatak kod Dragove, Ss = Mala Sestrica uz Telašćicu, Šl = Šilo uz Žverinac, Tc = Tramerčica uz Tramerku, Tć = Taljurić uz Telašćicu, Tj = Tajer (Vela Sestrica), Tk = Tukošćan uz Lavdaru, Tl = Trimulić uz SE. Lavdaru, Tm = Tramerka uz NW. Dugi, Tv = Tovarić uz luku Božava, Ut = Utran kod Brbinja, VB = Veli Buć uz Telašćicu, Vk = Vaka uz luku Sali.

  • Aethionema saxatile L. subsp. scopulorum* (Ronn.) Ander. = T, Gr, Tj
  • Agave americana L. = D, T, Mv (naturalized)
  • Ailanthus altissima Swingle = D, T, R, Tj (naturalized)
  • Alaternus glabra Mill. = D, T, L; Kr, Ss, Tc, Tj
  • Allium commutatum* Guss. = Ac, Gl, Gr, Gz, MA, Ss, T, Tc, Tj, Tk, Vk
  • Allium subhirsutum L. = D, T; Kr, Ss, Tj
  • Althaea canabina L. = D, T, Ž, R; Km, Tj
  • Alyssoides sinuata (L.) Medic. = D, T, L; Gl, Kr
  • Anagallis arvensis L. = D, T, Ž, R, K
  • Anthyllis vulneraria L. s.lat. = D, T; Gr, Tj
  • Arthrocnemum glaucum (Del.) Ung. = D, T, K; Ac, Gl, Gr, Gz, Kc, Kr, Km, MA, Pr, Pt, Ss, Tć, Tj, Tk
  • Arundo donax L. = D, T, K
  • Asparagus acutifolius L. = D, T, Ž, R, L, K; Gr, Km, Kr, Šp, Tj, Vk
  • Asphodelus aestivus Brot. = D, T, Ž, L, K; Bn, Dr, DŠ, GA, Gl, Gr, Kk, Kn, Kr, MB, Ms, Ob, Ss, Tc, Tj, Tk, Tm, Tv
  • Asplenium petrarchae (Guer.) DC. (A. glandulosum Lois.) = D, Pr
  • Atriplex prostrata* Bouch. (A. micrantha C.A.Meyer) = Gz, Kr, T
  • Avena aterantha* Presl. (A. pilosa M.Bieb.) = T, Tj, Gr
  • Beta maritima L. (B. vulgaris subsp. perennis Aellen) = D, T, Gl
  • Brachypodium retusum (Pers.) P.B. = T, L, K; Dr, DŠ, Ga, Gr, Kr, MA, Tj, VB
  • Bromus condensatus Hack. = D, Ž, T, DŠ, VB
  • Cakile maritima Scopoli s.lat. = D, K, Tm
  • Campanula pyramidalis L. = D, T, Tj
  • Capsella rubella Reuter. = D, T, Ž, R, K, Gr
  • Carduus micropterus (Borbas) Teyber = D, T, K; Gr, Tc, Tj, Tk
  • Carpobrotus acinaciformis (L.) Bol. = D, T, Tj (naturalized)
  • Catapodium marinum (L.) Hubbard = Dugi + all islets (except no Taljurić)
  • Centaurea ragusina L. s.lat. = D, T, Gr
  • Centaurium limonifolium Greut.& al. (Erythraea rhodensis Boiss.) = D, T, L, Tj
  • Ceratonia siliqua L. = D, Tv
  • Chrysopogon gryllus (L.) Trin. = D, T, K, L, Ž, DŠ, GŠ
  • Clematis flammula L. = D, T, Ž, R, L; Ss, Šp, Tc, Tj
  • Convolvulus cneorum* L. = T, Gr
  • Convolvulus elegantissimus Mill. = D, T, Ž, K, MB
  • Coronilla emerus L. subsp. emeroides (Boiss.& Sprun.) Holmb.= D, T, K; Kn, Mb, Ob, Ss, Tj
  • Coronilla valentina L. = T, GŠ
  • Corydalis acaulis* (Wulfen) Pers. = T, Tj, MA
  • Crataegus monogyna subsp. aegaeica* (Pojar.) Franco = DŠ, Tj
  • Cupressus sempervirens L. = D, T, Ž, R, L, K; Ff, GŠ, Tj (naturalized)
  • Crithmum maritimum L. = widespread around Dugi + all near islets
  • Cyclamen repandum Sibth. & Sm. = D, T, Ž, R, L, Tj
  • Cymodocea nodosa (Ucria) Aschers. = D, T, DŠ, GŠ, Pr
  • Dactylis glomerata subsp. hispanica (Roth.) Nyman = D, T, Ž, R, L, Km, Tj
  • Daucus carota L. subsp. major (Vis.) Thellung = T, Kn
  • Daucus gummifer* All. (D. maritimus Lam.) = T, Gl, Gr, Kr, Tj
  • Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter = D, T, Ž, R, L, K; Km, Kr, DŠ, Tm, Tc
  • Dorycnium hirsutum (L.) Ser. = D, T, Ž, R, L, K; GA, GŠ, Lc, MB,VB
  • Elytrigia atherica (Link.) Kerguelen: C. Martinez = Dugi + all islets (except no Taljurić)
  • Erica manipuliflora Salisb. (E. verticillata Forskal.) = D, Bš
  • Eryngium creticum* Lam. = T, K, L
  • Euphorbia dendroides L. = T, Tj (also: island northwards of Dugi)
  • Euphorbia fragifera Janka = D, T, Ž; Gl, Kc, Km, MA
  • Euphorbia paralias L. = D, T, K, Ac, Tk
  • Euphorbia wulfenii Hoppe: Koch = D, T, Ž, L; DŠ, Ff, GA, Gr, Kr, Tk
  • Ficus carica L. subsp. erinosyce Risso (F. caprificus Tsch.& Ravas.)= D, T, Ž, L; DŠ, GA, Kr, Tk
  • Fraxinus ornus L. = D, T, Ž, R, Gš
  • Galium lucidum All. subsp. corrudifolium (Vill.) Hayek = D, T, Ž, R,L, K, Tj
  • Genista dalmatica Bartling = D, T, Tj
  • Gladiolus illyricus Koch = D, Bš
  • Glaucium flavum Crantz. = D, K, Tk
  • Halimione portulacoides (L.) Aelllen = D, T, Gz
  • Hedera taurica Carr. (H. helix subsp. poetarum Nyman) = D, T, GA
  • Helichrysum italicum (Roth.) Gussone = D, T, Ž, R, L; DŠ, GŠ, Kk, Kn, Kr, Lc, MB, Tt, Vk
  • Hordeum marinum Hudson = D, T, Ž, K, Km
  • Iris illyrica Tommasini = D, L
  • Juncus maritimus Lam. = D, T, Bš, GŠ
  • Juniperus macrocarpa Sibth.& Sm. = D, T, Ž, R, L, K; DŠ, GŠ, Kr
  • Juniperus phoenicea L. = D, T, Ž, R, L; DŠ, GŠ, Kk, Ob, Pr, Pt, Tc, Tk, Tt, Tv, Vk
  • Lagurus ovatus L. = D, T, Ž, R, K, Tj
  • Limonium anfractum* (Salmon) Salmon = T, Gr
  • Limonium cancellatum (Bernh.) Kuntze. = around Dugi + all islets (except no Taljurić)
  • Limonium narbonense Mill. = T, Gz
  • Lonicera implexa Aiton. = D, T, Ž, R, L, Tj
  • Lotus cytisoides * L. (L. creticus auct.) = Gl, Gr, Gz, MA, Ss, T, Tj
  • Lotus tenuis Wald.& Kit.: Willd. = D, T, Ž, L, K; Gl, Gz, Km, Kn, Lc
  • Marrubium incanum Desf. = D, T, Ž, L, Tk
  • Matthiola incana (L.) R. Brown = D, T, Tj
  • Muscari commutatum* Gussone = Kn, T, Tj
  • Myrtus communis L.= D, T, Ž, R, L, K; Ff, GŠ, Kk, Kn, Kr, Lc, MG, Mv, Pr, Pt, Šp, Tc, Tj, Tk, Tv, VA
  • Narcissus italicus* Ker.-Gawl. = Gz, Šp
  • Olea europaea subsp. *buxifolia (Ait.) Nyman = Dr, Gr, MA, T, Tc, Tj, Vb
  • Olea europaea subsp. sylvestris (Broter.) Nyman = D, T, Ž, L; DŠ, Gl, Gr, Gš, Lc, MB, Ms, Mv, Pr, Ss, Tj, Tk, Tt, Tv
  • Ophrys apifera Hudson. = D, T, Kr
  • Paliurus spina-christi Mill. = D, T, Ž, DŠ, GŠ, Vk
  • Parietaria judaica L. = D, T, Ž, Km, Pr, Tj
  • Petrorrhagia saxifraga (L.) Link. = D, T, Gr, Tj
  • Pilosella florentina (All.) Gebr. = D, L
  • Pinus halepensis Mill. = D, T, Ž, R, L, K; Bš, Ff, GŠ, Kk, MG, Šp, Tć, Tj
  • Pinus nigra Arnold. s.lat. = D, Šp
  • Pistacia chia* DC. (P. lentiscus subsp. penetrans Rad.) = Gl, Gr, MG, Tj, Ss
  • Pistacia lentiscus L.= D, T, Ž, R, L, K; Dr, Ff, Ga, Gl, GŠ, Kk, Kn, Lc, MG, Mv, Pr, Šp, Tj, Tć, Tk, Tv, VA
  • Pistacia terebinthus L. = D, T, Ž, Dr
  • Plantago coronopus L. = D, T, Ž, K, Gz
  • Plantago holosteum Scopoli = D, Gl, Gr, Km, MA, Pr, Ss, Šl, T, Tk, Tv
  • Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile = D, T, Ž; Kr, Lg, Pr, Pt, Šl, Tc, Tć, Tk, VA
  • Prasium majus L. = D, T, L, Kr, Tj
  • Quercus ilex L. = D, T, Ž, R, L, K; DŠ, Ff, GŠ, Lc, MB
  • Reichardia picroides (L.) Roth. = widespread in Dugi + all islets (except no Taljurić)
  • Rosmarinus officinalis L. = D, T, Šl
  • Rubia peregrina L. = D, T, Ž, R, L, Tj
  • Rubus heteromorphus (Ripart) Gerb. = D, T, Ž, L, K; Dr, DŠ, MA, MB, VB
  • Ruscus aculeatus L. = D, T, Ž, R, L; Ac, Ss, Tj
  • Salvia officinalis L. = D, T, Ž, R, L, K; Gl, Lc, Tc, VB
  • Sarcocornia fruticosa (L.) Scott. = D, T, L; Ac, Gl, Kc, Kr, MA, Tj
  • Sarcocornia perennis* (Mill.) Scott. (Salicornia radicans S.) = Taljurić only
  • Satureia variegata Host. = D, T, Tj
  • Scolymus hispanicus L. = D, T, Ž, L, K; Km, Tk, VB
  • Sedum sediforme (Jacq.) Pau. (S. altissimum Poir.) = D, T, Gr
  • Silene vulgaris subsp. suffrutescens* Greuter & al.= Dugi + all islets (except: no *Taljurić)
  • Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertner = D, MA
  • Smilax aspera L. = D, T, Ž, R, L, K; Ac, Gl, Gr, Kc, Kr, MA, Ss, Tj
  • Smilax aspera subsp. mauritanica (Desf.) Nyman = T, Ac
  • Solanum decipiens* Opiz. = T, K, Ž, Tj
  • Sonchus asper L. ssp. glaucescens (Jord.) Ball. = D, T, Ž, L; Gz, Kr, Ss, Tj
  • Spartium junceum L. = D, T, Ž, R, L, Šp
  • Stipa bromoides (L.) Dörfler = D, T, Ž, L, K
  • Tamarix dalmatica Baum. = D, T, Lg, Tj
  • Tamus cimmunis L.s.l. subsp. cretica (L.) Nyman (T. orientalis Boiss.) = D, T, Ž, Tk
  • Teucrium capitatum* L. = T, Tj, Gr
  • Trifolium subterraneum L. = D, T, Ž, R, L, K, Tj
  • Urginea maritima* (L.) Baker = Gz
  • Vincetoxicum croaticum* Jordan. & Four. = Gl, MA, T, Tj
  • Vitex agnus-castus L. = D, T, VB

Tabela 2: Morska flora (Phytobenthos)

Dugi and near islets: list of marine flora; - Legend of sumbols: D = main seashores of Dugi island, T = Telašćica Reserve and near islets

Morske cvjetnice (Potamogetonales)

Seagrasses: 3 taxa

  • Cymodocea nodosa (Ucria) Ascherson / D, T
  • Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile / D, T
  • Zostera hornemanniana Tutin / T

Zelene alge (Chlorophyta)

Chlorophytes: 45 taxa (4 calcified)

  • Acetabularia acetabulum (L.) Silva / D, T
  • Anadyomene stellata (Wulfen) C.Ag. / D, T
  • Bryopsis adriatica (J.Ag.) Frauenfeld / T
  • Bryopsis duplex De Notaris / T
  • Bryopsis hypnoides Lamouroux / D, T
  • Bryopsis. spec. indet. (steril) / D, T
  • Bulbocoleon piliferum Pringsheim / T
  • Chaetomorpha linum (Müller) Kütz. / T
  • Chaetomorpha mediterranea (Kütz.) Kütz. / D, T
  • Cladophora coelothrix Kütz. / D, T
  • Cladophora dalmatica Kütz. / T
  • Cladophora echinus (Biasol.) Kütz. / D, T
  • Cladophora glomerata (L.) Kütz. / D, T
  • Cladophora pellucida (Huds.) Kütz. / D, T
  • Cladophora prolifera (Roth.) Kütz. / D, T
  • Cladophora spec. indet. (steril) / D, T
  • Codium bursa (L.) C. Ag. / D, T
  • Codium coralloides (Kütz.) Silva / T
  • Codium effusum (Raf.) Chiaje / D, T
  • Codium vermilara (Olivi) Chiaje / D, T
  • Dasycladus vermicularis (Scop.) Kras./ D, T
  • Derbesia tenuissima (Moris & De Not.) Crouan / D, T
  • Enteromorpha compressa (L.) Nees / D, T
  • Enteromorpha multiramosa Bliding / T
  • Enteromorpha spec. indet. (steril) / D, T
  • Entocladia viridis Reinke / D, T
  • Flabellia minima (Ernst) Nizzamudin / T
  • Flabellia petiolata (Turra) Gepp. / D, T
  • Halicystis parvula Schmitz. / D, T
  • Halimeda tuna (Ell.& Sol.) Lamour. / D, T
  • Halimeda tuna f. platydisca (Decne) Barton / D, T
  • Palmophyllum crassum (Naccari) Raben. / D, T
  • Pedobesia simplex (Menegh.) Wynne & Leliart / D, T
  • Phaeophila dendroides (Crouan) Batters/ D, T
  • Pringsheimiella scutata (Reinke) Marches./ D, T
  • Pseudochlorodesmis furcellata (Zanard.) Börg. / D, T
  • Rhizoclonium tortuosum (Dillw.) Kütz. / D, T
  • Siphonocladus pusillus (Kütz.) Hauck / D, T
  • Ulothrix subflaccida Wille / D, T
  • Ulothrix spec. indet. (steril) / T
  • Ulva rigida C.Ag. / D, T
  • Ulvella lens Crouan / D, T
  • Valonia macrophysa Kütz. / D, T
  • Valonia utricularis (Roth.) C. Ag. / D, T
  • V. utricularis v. crustacea Kuck. (V.cespitula Zan.)/ T

Smedje alge (Phaeophyta)

Phaeophytes: 60 taxa

  • Arthrocladia villosa (Huds.) Duby / D, T
  • Asperococcus bullosus Lamouroux / D, T
  • Carpomitra costata (Stack.) Batters / T
  • Cladosiphon mediterraneus Kütz. / D, T
  • Cladostephus spongiosus (Huds.) C.Ag. / D, T
  • Colpomenia sinuosa (Roth.) Derb.& Sol. / T
  • Cutleria chilosa (Falkenb.) Silva, spor. / D, T
  • Cutleria multifida (Smith) Greville / D, T
  • Cystoseira amentacea (C.Ag.) Bory / D, T
  • Cy. amentacea var. spicata (Erceg.) Giac./ D, T
  • Cystoseira barbata (L.) C. Ag. / D, T
  • Cystoseira crinita (Desf.) Bory / D, T
  • Cystoseira compressa (Esp.) Gerl.& Niz./ D, T
  • Cystoseira corniculata (Wulf.) Zanard. / D, T
  • Cystoseira dubia Val. (C.fucoides Erceg.)/ D, T
  • Cystoseira humilis Kütz. / T
  • Cy. jabukae Erceg. / T
  • Cystoseira schiffneri (C.Ag.) Hamel / D, T
  • Cystoseira spinosa Sauv. / D, T
  • Cystoseira spinosa v. platyramosa Giac. / D, T
  • Cystoseira stricta (Mont.) Sauv. / T
  • Cystoseira zosteroides (Turn.) C.Ag. / D, T
  • Dictyopteris polypodoides (DC.) Lamour./ D, T
  • Dictyota dichotoma (Huds.) Lamouroux / D, T
  • Dictyota linearis (C. Ag.) Greville / D, T
  • Dictyota fasciola (Roth.) Lamouroux / D, T
  • Dictyota mediterranea (Schifn.) G.Furnari / T
  • Ectocarpus siliculosus (Dillw.) Lyngbye / D, T
  • E.siliculosus v. adriaticus (Erceg.) Furnari / D, T
  • Ectocarpus spec. indet. (steril) / T
  • Elachista intermedia Crouan / D, T
  • Feldmannia caespitula (J.Ag.) Peguy / D, T
  • Feldmannia irregularis (Kütz.) Hamel / D, T
  • Fucus virsoides (Donati) J.Ag. / D
  • Giraudya sphacelarioides Derbes / D, T
  • Halopteris filicina (Grat.) Kütz. / D, T
  • Hincksia dalmatica (Erceg.) G. Furnari / D, T
  • Leathesia mucosa Feldmann / T
  • Pseudoithoderma adriaticum (Hauck) Verl. / T
  • Myriactula rivulariae (Suhr.) Feldmann / D, T
  • Myriactula stellulata (Grif.) Feldmann / D, T
  • Myronema orbiculare J. Ag. / D, T
  • Nereia filiformis (J.Ag.) Zanardini / D, T
  • Padina pavonica (L.) Thivy / D, T
  • Ralfsia verrucosa (Aresch.) Ag. / D, T
  • Sargassum acinarium (L.) C.Ag. / D, T
  • Sargassum hornschuchii C. Ag. / D, T
  • Sargassum vulgare C.Ag. / D, T
  • S. vulgare subsp. nanum Paula / T
  • Scytosiphon lomentaria Endl. / D, T
  • Spermatochnus paradoxus Kütz. / D, T
  • Sphacellaria cirrhosa (Roth.) Ag. / D, T
  • Sphacellaria fusca C.Ag. / D, T
  • Sphacellaria plumula Zanar. / D, T
  • Sporochnus pedunculatus (Huds.) C.Ag./ D, T
  • Stictiosiphon adriaticus Kütz. / T
  • Stilophora tenella (Esper) P.C. Silva / D, T
  • Stypocaulon scoparium (L.) Kütz. / D, T
  • Taonia atomaria (Wood.) J. Ag. / D, T
  • Zanardinia typus (Nardo) P.C. Silva / D, T

Crvene alge (Rhodophyta)

Rhodophytes: 164 taxa (27 calcified)

  • Acrodiscus vidovichii Zanardini / D, T
  • Acrosorium venulosum (Zanardini) Kylin / D, T
  • Acrosymphyton purpuriferum (Ag.) Sjös. / D, T
  • Aeodes marginata (Rous.) Schousboe / D, T
  • Aglaothamnion scopulorum (C.Ag.) J.Ag. / T
  • Aglaothamnion tenuissimum (Bon.) Feldm./ D, T
  • Amphiroa beauvoisii Lamouroux / T
  • Amphiroa rubra (Phil.) Woelkm. / D, T
  • Amphiroa rigida Lamouroux / D, T
  • Anotrichum barbatum (C.Ag.) Nägeli / D, T
  • Antithamnion cruciatum (C.Ag.) Nägeli / D, T
  • Antithamnion tenuissimum (Hauck) Schous./ D, T
  • Apoglossum ruscifolium J. Ag. / D, T
  • Arachnophyllum cf. confervaceum (Men.) Zan./ D,T
  • Audouinella daviesii (Dillw.) Woelk. / D, T
  • Audouinella spec. indet. (steril) / D, T
  • Audouinella virgatula (Harv.) Dixon / D, T
  • Bangia atropurpurea (Roth.) C.Ag. / T
  • Boergeseniella fruticulosa (Wulfen) Kylin / D, T
  • Botryocladia botryoides (Wulf) Feldmann / D, T
  • Botryocladia chiajeana (Men.) Kylin / T
  • Botryocladia microphysa (Hauck) Kylin / D, T
  • Brogniartella byssoides (Good.) Schmitz. / D, T
  • Callithamnion corymbosum Lyngbye / D, T
  • Callithamnion granulatum C. Ag. / D, T
  • Catenella caespitosa (With.) Irvine / D, T
  • Caulacanthus ustulatus (Turn.) Kütz. / D, T
  • Ceramium bertholdii Funk / D, T
  • Ceramium ciliatum (Ellis.) Ducl. / D, T
  • Ceramium circinnatum (Kütz.) J.Ag. / T
  • Ceramium codii (Rich.) Mazoyer / D, T
  • Ceramium siliquosum (Kütz.) Maggs & Homers / D, T
  • Ceramium spec. indet. (steril) / D, T
  • Ceramium tenerrimum (Martens) Okam. / D, T
  • Ceramium virgatum (Huds.) Roth. / D, T
  • Champia parvula (C.Ag.) Harvey / D, T
  • Chondracanthus acicularis (Roth.) Fred./ D, T
  • Chondria capilaris (Huds.) M.J. Wynne / D, T
  • Chondria dasyphylla (Wood.) C.Ag. / D, T
  • Chondrophycus thuyoides (Kütz.) G. Furnari / T
  • Ch. papillosus (C.Ag.) Garbary & Harper / D, T
  • Chroodactylon ornatum (C.Ag.) Basson / D, T
  • Chrysimenia ventricosa (Lam.) J.Ag. / D, T
  • Chylocladia verticillata (Light.) Bliding / D, T
  • Compsothamnion thuyoides Schmitz / D, T
  • Contarinia peyssonelliformis Zanard. / D, T
  • Corallina officinalis L. / D, T
  • Corallina elongata Ell.& Sol. / T
  • Corallophila cinnabarina (Bory) Norris/ D, T
  • Crouania attenuata (Bon.)J.Ag. / D, T
  • Cryptonemia lomation (Bertol.) J.Ag. / D, T
  • Cryptonemia tunaeformis J.Ag. / D, T
  • Dasya baillouviana (Gmel.) Montagu. / D, T
  • Dasya hutchinsiae Harvey / D, T
  • Dasya ocellata (Grat.) Harvey / D, T
  • Digenea simplex (Wulf.) C. Ag. / T
  • Dipterosiphonia rigens (C.Ag.) Falkenberg / D, T
  • Dudresnaya verticillata (Vel.) Jolis / D, T
  • Erythrocystis montagnei (Derbes) Silva / D, T
  • Erythroglossum sandrianum (Kütz.) Kyl./ D,T
  • Erythrotrichia carnea (Dillw.) J.Ag./ D, T
  • Eupogodon planus (C.Ag.) Kütz.. / D, T
  • Eupogodon spinellus (C.Ag.) Kütz. / D, T
  • Falkenbergia rufolanosa Schmitz (stade) / D, T
  • Fauchea repens (C. Ag.) Montagne / D, T
  • Tricleocarpa fragilis (L.) Huisman & Town. / D, T
  • Gastroclonium clavatum (Roth.) Ardissone / D, T
  • Gelidiella pannosa Feld.& Hamel / T
  • Gelidium crinale (Turn.) Gaillon / D, T
  • Gelidium spinosum (S. Gmelin) P.C. Silva / D, T
  • Gelidium pusillum LeJolis / D, T
  • Gelidium spathulatum (Kütz.) Bornet / D, T
  • Gelidium spec. indet. (steril) / D, T
  • Gloiocladia furcata (C. Ag.) J. Ag. / T
  • Gracilaria bursapastoris (Gmel.) Silva / D, T
  • Gracilaria corallicola Zanardini / D, T
  • Gracillaria dura (C. Ag.) J.Ag. / T
  • Griffithsia phyllamphora J. Ag. / D, T
  • Griffithsia schousboei Montagne / D, T
  • Gymnothamnion elegans (Schousboe) J.Ag. / T
  • Haliptilon virgatum (Zan.) Garbary & Johan. / D, T
  • Halodictyon mirabile Zanardini / D, T
  • Halopitys incurva (Huds.) Batters / D, T
  • Halymenia floresia (Clem.) C.Ag. / D, T
  • Herposiphonia secunda (C.Ag.) Ambr./ D, T
  • Hildenbrandia rubra (Sommer) Meneghini / D, T
  • Hydrolithon farinosum (Lam.) Penrose / D, T
  • Hypnea musciformis (Wulf.) Lamouroux / D, T
  • Hypoglossum hypoglossides Coll.& Harv./ D, T
  • Jania rubens (L.) Lamouroux / D, T
  • Kallymenia reniformis (Turn.) J.Ag. / D, T
  • Kallymenia spathulata (J. Ag.) Parker. / D, T
  • Laurencia obtusa (Huds.) Lamouroux / D
  • Lejolisia mediterranea Bornet / D, T
  • Liagora viscida (Forskal.) C.Ag. / D, T
  • Lithophyllum byssoides (Lam.) Foslie / D, T
  • Lithophyllum cystoseirae Hauck / D, T
  • Lithophyllum incrustans Phil. / D, T
  • Lithophyllum papillosum (Zanard.) Fosl. / T
  • Lithophyllum pustulatum Lamouroux / D, T
  • Lithophyllum racemus Foslie / D, T
  • Lithophyllum strictaeforme (Aresch.) Hauck / D, T
  • Lithophyllum trochanter (Bory) Huvé / D, T
  • Lithothamnion coralloides Crouan / T
  • Lomentaria articulata (Huds.) Lyngbye / D, T
  • Lomentaria spec. indet. (steril) / D, T
  • Lomentaria verticillata Funk. / D, T
  • Lophosiphonia cristata Falkenberg / D, T
  • Lophosiphonia obscura (C.Ag.) Falkenb. / D, T
  • Melobesia membranacea (Esp.) Lamour./ D. T
  • Mereditha microphylla (J.Ag.) J.Ag. / D, T
  • Mesophyllum lichenoides (Ellis) Lamour. / T
  • Monosporus pedicellatus (Smith) Solier / D, T
  • Nemalion helminthoides (Velley) Batters/ D, T
  • Nemastoma constrictum Erceg. / T
  • Nemastoma dichotomum J.Ag. / D, T
  • Neogoniolithon mamillosum Setch.& Mason / T
  • N. brassica-florida (Harvey) Setch. & Mason /D, T
  • Neurocaulon foliosum Zanardini / T
  • Nitophyllum punctatum (Stack.) Greville / D, T
  • Osmundaria volubilis (L.) R.E. Norris / D, T
  • Osmundea truncata (Kütz.) Nam & Maggs / T
  • Peyssonellia adriatica Hauck / D, T
  • Peyssonellia coriacea Feldmann / T
  • Peyssonellia harveyana Crouan: J.Ag. / T
  • Peyssonellia polymorpha (Zanar.) Schm. / D, T
  • Peyssonellia rosa-marina Boud. & Deniz. / T
  • Peyssonellia rubra (Grev.) J.Ag. / D, T
  • Peyssonellia squamaria (Gmel.) Decne. / D, T
  • Phyllophora herediae (Clem.) J.Ag. / T
  • Phyllophora crispaa (Huds.) Dixon / D, T
  • Phymatolithon calcareum (Pall.) Adey / T
  • Phymatolithon lenormandii (Ar.) Adey / D, T
  • Platoma cyclocolpa (Montagne) Schmitz / D, T
  • Pleonosporium borreri Nägeli / T
  • Plocamium cartilagineum (L.) Dixon / D, T
  • Pneophyllum fragile Kütz. / D, T
  • Polysiphonia elongata (Huds.) Harvey / D, T
  • Polysiphonia opaca (C.Ag.) Moris & Not./ D, T
  • Polysiphonia scopulorum Harvey / T
  • Polysiphonia sertularioides (Gratel.) Ag./ D, T
  • Polysiphonia subulifera (C.Ag.) Harvey / D, T
  • Polysiphonia spec. indet. (steril) / D, T
  • Pterocladiella melanoidea Santer.& Homer. / D, T
  • Pterothamnion plumula (Ellis) Nägeli / T
  • Ptilothamnion pluma (Dillw.) Thuret / D, T
  • Rhodophyllis divaricata (Stack.) Papenfus / D, T
  • Rhodymenia ardissonei Feldmann / D, T
  • Rhodymenia ligulata Zanardini / D, T
  • Rodriguezella straforelii Schmitz / D, T
  • Rytiphloea tinctoria (Clem.) C.Ag. / D, T
  • Salhingia subintegra (Rosenv.) Kornmann / D, T
  • Schottera nicaeensis (Duby) Guir.& Hol./ D, T
  • Seirospora interrupta (Smith) Schmitz. / D, T
  • Spermothanion flabellatum Bornet / D, T
  • Spermothamnion johannis Feld.-Mazoyer / D, T
  • Spermothamnion repens Rosenwinge / D, T
  • Sphaerococcus coronopifolius (Good.) Ag. / D,T
  • Spongites fruticulosus Kütz. / T
  • Spyridia filamentosa (Wulf.) Harvey / D, T
  • Stylonema alsidii (Zan.) Drewille / D, T
  • Wrangelia penicillata (C. Ag.) J. Ag. / D, T

Literatura (References)

  • 1. BEDALOV, M.& GAŽI-BASKOVA, V. 1987: Analiza flore Kornatskog otočja. Acta Bot. Croat. 46: 173-184, Zagreb.
  • 2. ŠPAN, A.& ANTOLIĆ, B. 1993: Benthic marine flora of Kornati National Park (Kornati Archipelago, Middle Adriatic, Croatia). Acta Adriat 34: 29 - 44
  • 3. VOUK, V. 1930: Dugi i Kornati, morske alge. Prirodoslovna istraživanja JAZU 16: 163-171, Zagreb.
  • 4. ERCEGOVIĆ, A. 1952: Sur les Cystoseira adriatiques. Fauna et flora adriatica 2: 105-114, 173-212 + 30 tab., Institut d' océanographie, Split
  • 5. LINARDIĆ, J. 1946: Studije o jadranskom fukusu. Acta Bot. Zagreb 12-13: 7-132
  • 6. BAUMGARTNER, J. 1916: Studien über die Verbreitung der Gehölze im nordöstlichen Adriagebiete III, Die Zaratiner Inseln. Abhand. Zool. Bot. Gesel. 9 (2): 3-12, Wien.
  • 7. CUFODONTIS, G. 1929: Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Flora von Norddalmatien. Ann. Nat. Hist. Mus. Wien 43: 210-228 + 2 tab.
  • 8. PEVALEK, I. 1930: Dugi i Kornati, vaskularna flora. Prirodoslovna istraživanja JAZU 16: 119-158, Zagreb.
  • 9. PLAVŠIĆ-GOJKOVIĆ, N. 1964: Prilog istraživanjima kraških polja Dugog otoka. Poljoprivredna znanstvena smotra 19 (8): 93-106, Zagreb.
  • 10. PLAVŠIĆ-GOJKOVIĆ, N. 1966: Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Karstfeldunkrauter der Insel Dugi (Dalmatien). Angewandte Pflanzensoziologie 18-19: 233-242
  • 11. TRINAJSTIĆ, I. 1986: Prilog poznavanju flore otoka Dugog. Acta botanica croatica 50: 129-133, Zagreb.
  • 12. HORVATIĆ, S. 1962: Novi prilog poznavanju primorske vegetacije gariga i kamenjarskih pašnjaka. Acta Bot. Croat. 20-21: 243-259, Zagreb.
  • 13. PAVLETIĆ, Z.& TRINAJSTIĆ, I. 1983: Daucus dentatus Bert. (Apiaceae), nova vrsta u flori Jugoslavije. Acta bot. croat. 42: 131-136
  • 14. TRINAJSTIĆ, I. 1983: Rasprostranjenost vrste Euphorbia dendroides L. (Euphorbiaceae) u jadranskom bazenu. Poljoprivreda i šumarstvo 33 (2): 19-28.
  • 15. TUTIN, T.G. (ed) 1978-2000: Flora Europaea, vol. I-II, 2nd ed., vol. III-V, 1st ed. Cambridge University Press
  • 16. FURNARI, G. et al. 1999: Catalogue of the benthic marine macroalgae of the Italian coast of Adriatic Sea. OPTIMA - Bocconea 12: 1-214
  • 17. GIACCONE, G. 1978: Revisione della flora marina del Mare Adriatico. Suppl Ann Parco marino Miramare 6/19: 1 - 118
  • 18. BRESSAN, G.& BABBINI-BENUSSI, L. 1996: Phytoceanographical observations on coralline algae in Mediterranean Sea. Rend. Fis. Accad. Lincei IX,7 (3): 179-207
  • 19. GALLARDO, T. et al. 1993: Check-list of Mediterranean Seaweeds, 2 Chlorophyceae. Botanica Marina 36: 399-421
  • 20. RIBERA, A.M. et al. 1992: Check-list of Mediterranean Seaweeds, 1 Fucophyceae. Botanica Marina 35: 109-130
  • 21. POLJAK, J. 1930: Geomorfologija otoka Dugog. Prirodoslovna istraživanja JAZU 16: 3-32, Zagreb.
  • 22. HORVAT, I. et al. 1974: Die Vegetation Südost-Europas. Geobotanica Selecta IV, G Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, 768 pp.
  • 23. BRAUN-BLANQUET, J. 1964: Pflanzensoziologie: Grundzüge der Vegetationskunde. Springer Verlag, Wien-New York, 3rd edition, 865 pp
  • 24. BARKMAN, J.J. et al. 1986: Code of phytosociological nomenclature (2nd edition). Vegetatio - Acta Geobotanica 67: 145-195
  • 25. KOROTKOV, K.O. et al. 1991: The USSR vegetation syntaxa prodromus. G.E. Vilchek publishers, Moscow 346 pp
  • 26. MEINESZ, A.& BOUDOURESQUE C.F. 1983: Normalisation des symbols pour la présentation et la cartographie des biocoenoses benthiques et littorales de la Méditerranée. Annales Inst. Ocean. Paris 54 (2): 155-172
  • 27. GIACCONE, G. et al. 1993: La vegetazione marina bentonica del Mediterraneo: I. Sopralitorale e Mesolitorale (proposte di aggiornamento). Boll. Accad. Gioenia Sci. Nat. Catania 341: 245-291.
  • 28. GIACCONE, G. et al. 1994: La vegetazione marina bentonica del Mediterraneo: II.- III. Infralitorale e Circalitorale (proposte di aggiornamento). Boll. Accad. Gioenia Sci. Nat. Catania 346: 111-157 & 201-227
  • 29. DOMAC, R. 1963: Flora otoka Molata. Acta Bot. Croat. 22: 83 - 98, Zagreb.
  • 30. GAVAZZI, M. 1974: Die Nutzung des Tangs in den Volksüberlieferungen der europäischen Meeresküsten. Memoria A.J. Dias, p. 123-138, Universidad Lisboa
  • 31. LOVRIĆ A-Ž. 1997: Marine flora onomastics in islands Prvić, Grgur, Goli, and near shores Baška-Stinica in Northeastern Adriatic (30 year samplings in all seasons). Period. Biol. 99 (2): 271 - 283
  • 32. GIACCONE, G. 1965: Le fitocenosi marine nel settore rosso di capo Zafferano. Lavori Istituto Bot. Palermo 22: 1 - 69
  • 33. LOVRIĆ, A.Ž. 1978: Phytozönologische Analyse der Meeresvegetation Ostadrias. Mitteil. Ostalp. Gesell. Veget. 14: 215 229, Acad. Sci. Ljubljana
  • 34. ERCEGOVIĆ, A. 1960: Végétation des algues sur les fonds pechereux de l' Adriatique. "Hvar" Cruises Reports IV/4, 32 p., Institut d'océanographie, Split
  • 35. RAC, M.& LOVRIĆ, A.Ž. 2003: Vegetation and phytonyms in Dugi island, Telašćica islets, and near benthos in Northeastern Adriatic. Periodicum Biologorum 105 / 4: 439-452, Zagreb.

Poveznice (Links)

Reference

Original condensed report elaborated by above entitled authors (M. Rac & A.Z. Lovric 2003) within the enclosed sub-project WikiFlora Adriatica: if quoted may be copied as free source without changes.