Anti-communism is the militant ideology of imperialism, which expresses the interests of monopoly capital in its struggle against the forces of socialism, democracy and progress, against the international working class and communist movement, against the peoples fighting for their national liberation.
Anti-communism, as a reaction by the bourgeoisie and feudal aristocracy to the proletariat’s creation of its own class ideology, had appeared even before the scientific theory of socialism and communism came into being. In the mid-19th century, when Marx and Engels were working on the Manifesto of the Communist Party, communism was already hounded by "Pope and Czar, Metternich and Guizot, French Radicals and German police-spies." Later on, with the growth of the working-class movement and spread of the theory of scientific socialism, anti-communism gained prominence in bourgeois ideology. Lastly, with the emergence of the world socialist system, with the rise of the authority and influence of the socialist countries and socialist ideas across the world, anti-communism has become the ideological basis of the policy of imperialist reaction. In the context of struggle between the two world systems, anti-communism has become the official ideology of imperialist states. Today anti-communism is seen in the political actions of imperialist reaction, its economic efforts and broad engagement in the ideological struggle. Anti-communism is used to fuel jingoism, justify militarisation of the economy and the arms race, “prove” the need for military alliances and bases on foreign territories, and finally, interfere in the internal affairs of economically weaker countries on the pretext of "defence against communism”.
Objections to Marxist theory
A salient feature of anti-communism is the striving to discredit the scientific theory of social development, that is Marxism-Leninism. Proponents of anti-communism are quite unprincipled in gathering together anything they can use to fight communism. They try to prove that Marxism-Leninism "is out of date" and its conclusions regarding the prospects for capitalism are divorced from reality because capitalism "has been transformed" into some kind of new society. They bandy about such phrases as "democratically renewed capitalism" and the "welfare state”, they come up with theories of the "middle class”, "managerial revolution”, etc., the purpose being to camouflage the social antagonisms of modern capitalism.
The changed balance of power between the two social systems in the international arena has told both on the theory and strategies of anti-communism. Frontal attacks have increasingly been replaced by large-scale ideological subversion aimed at disarming the forces of socialism and undermining their capacity to fight bourgeois ideology. Accordingly, the theories of “convergence”, of "industrial and post-industrial society" are being propounded, alleging that socialism and capitalism are merely two different ways to the same type of society, where these ways will converge.
Being the ideology of extreme reaction, anti-communism is wholly alien to the interests of the working people. Yet it still weighs heavily on the public, especially in the imperialist 13 countries, where it is trumpeted by all the might of the mass media.
The spreading of anti-communism amongst the masses is based not on theory, but on propaganda cliches called on to discredit the tenets of Marxist teaching and socialist practice. Accordingly, these anti–communist cliches are fabricated to suit the “consumers”: intellectuals, workers, petty– bourgeois, clericals, etc. But with all the diversity of trends and approaches, all anti–communist precepts are based, first, on the lie that "communist imperialism" aims to "conquer the world" (the objective and inevitable change of socio-economic formations is thus presented as the result of the "evil will" and “intrigues” of Communists); second, slanderous assertions that Communists are proponents of violence, that they are "sworn enemies of democracy”, that they do not want nor are able to stand by human dignity and freedom of the individual in the countries where they come to power; third, all sorts of inventions about communist atheism and “ persecution” of believers in socialist countries, aimed at setting religious working people against Communists.
Modern anti-communism can be overt and covert. The first stakes on the backwardness and prejudices of the masses, plays on ignorance, racism, chauvinism and religious fanaticism. The second masks its reactionary essence in the guise of science, and concentrates its efforts not only on “refuting” Marxism, but also on revising and emasculating its revolutionary content. It tries to speculate on such sentiments and aspirations of peoples as strivings for national independence, democracy, freedom of conscience, etc.
The chief method of anti-communism is falsification of Marxist-Leninist theory, of the policy and goals of Communist Parties, and slander of socialism. In their propaganda the ideologists of anti-communism attempt to use the objective difficulties encountered in the development of the new society, the unsolved problems of the theory and practice of building socialism and communism, as well as certain mistakes made by the Communist Parties in some countries.
The struggle against anti-communism demands of Communists clearly defined tactics, distinguishing between organised anti-communism, which serves imperialism, and the prejudices of misled people. Regarding the latter, Communists engage in extensive explanatory work, seeking popular unity in the struggle for peace and against the power of the monopolies. This unity is necessary and possible because the struggle against anti-communism concerns not only Communists. It is joined by all those who come out honestly and consistently in defence of democracy, national independence and peace. To counter anti-communism means not only exposure of bourgeois conceptions but also creative development of Marxist-Leninist theory, profound elaboration of the problems encountered in the building socialism and communism, and in modern social development as a whole.
- Marx, Engels, Collected Works, Vol. 6, p. 481