German Democratic Republic

From Communpedia
(Redirected from East Germany)
Jump to: navigation, search
German Democratic Republic
Deutsche Demokratische Republik


Flag Coat of arms
"Proletarier aller Länder, vereinigt Euch!"
("Workers of the world, unite!")
"Auferstanden aus Ruinen"
("Risen from Ruins") File:Auferstanden aus Ruinen.ogg
Capital East Berlin
Language(s) Official: German
Unofficial minority languages: Sorbian
Government Marxist–Leninist socialist state
Chairman of the Council of State
 - 1949–60 Wilhelm Pieck (President)
 - 1960–73 Walter Ulbricht
 - 1973–76 Willi Stoph
 - 1976–89 Erich Honecker
 - 1989 Egon Krenz
 - 1989–90 Manfred Gerlach
 - 1990 Sabine Bergmann-Pohl (interim head of state)
Chairman of the Council of Ministers
 - 1949–64 Otto Grotewohl
 - 1964–73 Willi Stoph
 - 1973–76 Horst Sindermann
 - 1976–89 Willi Stoph
 - 1989–90 Hans Modrow
 - 1990 Lothar de Maizière (Minister-President)
Legislature Volkskammer
Historical era Cold War
 - Established 7 October 1949
 - Final settlement 25 September 1990
 - German reunification 3 October 1990
 - 1990 108,333 km2 (41,828 sq mi)
 - 1990 est. 16,111,000 
     Density 148.7 /km2  (385.2 /sq mi)
Currency Mark der DDR (M) until 30 June 1990, named:
1948–64 Deutsche Mark (DM)
1964–67 Mark der Deutschen Notenbank (MDN)

Deutsche Mark (DM) as of 1 July 1990
Internet TLD
Calling code
Today part of  Germany
1 Although .dd was reserved as corresponding ISO code for East Germany, it was not entered to the root before the country was disestablished.[1]
2 Country code +37 was withdrawn in 1992; the numbers range was divided into ten new country codes, re-allocated among several post-Soviet states and European microstates.

The German Democratic Republic (GDR; German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR; more commonly known in English as East Germany) was a self-declared socialist state (but often incorrectly referred to in the West as a "communist state") in the Eastern Bloc created in the Soviet Zone of occupied Germany and the Soviet sector of occupied Berlin. The German Democratic Republic existed from 7 October 1949 until 3 October 1990, when its re-established states acceded to the adjacent Federal Republic of Germany, thus producing the current form of the state of Germany.

In 1955, the Soviet Union declared that the Republic was fully sovereign. However, Soviet occupation troops remained in East German territory, based on the four-power Potsdam Agreement, while British, Canadian, French and American forces remained in the Federal Republic of Germany in the West. Berlin, completely surrounded by East German territory, was similarly divided with British, French and U.S. garrisons in West Berlin and Soviet forces in East Berlin. Berlin in particular became the focal point of Cold War tensions. East Germany was a member of the Warsaw Pact and a close ally of the Soviet Union.

Following the initial opening of sections of the Berlin Wall on 9 November 1989, new elections were held on 18 March 1990, and the governing party, the Socialist Unity Party of Germany, lost its majority in the Volkskammer (the East German parliament) soon after. On 23 August, the Volkskammer decided that the Republic would recreate the five pre-war states (which had been dissolved in 1952), which would join the Federal Republic of Germany on 3 October 1990. As a result of the reunification on that date, the German Democratic Republic ceased to exist.

In the GDR there was free healthcare, free childcare, free education, cheap public transport, low prices for art and culture, low-rent houses, cheap basic needs, everyone was home and there was no unemployment.[2]


Parties and mass organizations

In the GDR there were the following mass organizations:


External links and further reading

nl:Duitse Democratische Republiek ru:Германская Демократическая Республика