Laos

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Laos, officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic, is a landlocked country in Southeast Asia, bordered by Burma and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the south and Thailand to the west. Laos traces its history to the Kingdom of Lan Xang or Land of a Million Elephants, which existed from the 14th to the 18th century.

After a period as a French protectorate, it gained independence in 1949. A long civil war ended officially when the Communist Pathet Lao movement came to power in 1975, but the protesting between factions continued for several years.

Many call it communist and communists call it "phony communism", but it doesn't have any communist terms in its Constitution anymore[citation needed] but Laos' main party—the Lao People's Revolutionary Party—does claim to be communist.

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Lao People's Democratic Republic
  • ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ
  • Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao
Motto: ສັນຕິພາບ ເອກະລາດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ເອກະພາບ ວັດທະນາຖາວອນ
"Peace, independence, democracy, unity and prosperity"
Anthem: Pheng Xat Lao
Lao National Anthem
File:National Anthem of Laos.ogg

Template:Map caption
Capital
(and largest city)
Vientiane
17°58′N 102°36′E / 17.967°N 102.6°E / 17.967; 102.6
Official language(s) Lao
Official scripts Lao script
Ethnic groups (2005)
Demonym Laotian
Lao
Government Marxist–Leninist single-party state[b]
 -  President Choummaly Sayasone
 -  Prime Minister Thongsing Thammavong
 -  General Secretary
(Party)
Choummaly Sayasone
 -  President of the
National Assembly
Pany Yathotu
 -  President of
Construction
Sisavath Keobounphanh
Legislature National Assembly
Independence from France
 -  Autonomy 19 July 1949 
 -  Declared 22 October 1953 
Area
 -  Total 236,800 km2 (84th)
91,428.991 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 2
Population
 -  2012 estimate 6,500,000[1] (104th)
 -  1995 census 4,574,848 
 -  Density 26.7/km2 (177th)
69.2/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2012 estimate
 -  Total $19.158 billion[2] 
 -  Per capita $3,004[2] 
GDP (nominal) 2012 estimate
 -  Total $9.269 billion[2] 
 -  Per capita $1,320[2] 
Gini (2008) 34.6 
HDI (2013) 0.543 (138th)
Currency Kip (LAK)
Time zone (UTC+7)
Drives on the right
ISO 3166 code LA
Internet TLD .la
Calling code +856

Template:Contains Lao text Laos ((Listeni/ˈls/, /ˈlɑː.ɒs/, /ˈlɑː.s/, or /ˈl.ɒs/)[3][4][5] Lao Language: ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ, Template:IPA-lo Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic, is a landlocked country in Southeast Asia, bordered by Burma and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the south, and Thailand to the west. Its population was estimated to be around 6.5 million in 2012.[1]

Laos traces its history to the kingdom of Lan Xang, which existed from the 14th to the 18th century when it split into three separate kingdoms. In 1893, it became a French protectorate, with the three kingdoms, Luang Phrabang, Vientiane and Champasak, uniting to form what is now known as Laos. It briefly gained independence in 1945 after Japanese occupation, but returned to French rule until it was granted autonomy in 1949. Laos became independent in 1953, with a constitutional monarchy under Sisavang Vong. Shortly after independence, a long civil war ended the monarchy, when the Communist Pathet Lao movement came to power in 1975.

Laos is a single-party socialist republic. The capital city is Vientiane. Other large cities include Luang Prabang, Savannakhet, and Pakse. The official language is Lao. Laos is a multiethnic country with the politically and culturally dominant Lao people making up approximately sixty percent of the population, mostly in the lowlands. Various Mon-Khmer groups, the Hmong, and other indigenous hill tribes, accounting for forty percent of the population, live in the foothills and mountains. Laos' "strategy for development is based on generating electricity from its rivers and selling the power to its neighbours", namely Thailand, China, and Vietnam.[6] Its economy is accelerating rapidly with the demands for its metals.[7] It is a member of the Asia-Pacific Trade Agreement (APTA), Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), East Asia Summit and La Francophonie. Laos applied for membership of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1997, and on February 2, 2013 it was granted full membership.[8]

Etymology

In the Lao language, the country's name is "Muang Lao" (ເມືອງລາວ) or "Pathet Lao" (ປະເທດລາວ), both of which literally mean "Lao Country".[9] The French, who united the three separate Lao kingdoms in French Indochina in 1893, named the country as the plural of the dominant and most common ethnic group (in French, the final "s" at the end of a word is usually silent, thus it would be also be pronounced "Lao").[10]

History

Prehistory

In 2009 an ancient skull was recovered from a cave in the Annamite Mountains in northern Laos; the skull is at least 46,000 years old, making it the oldest modern human fossil found to date in Southeast Asia.[11] Archaeological evidence suggests agriculturist society developed during the 4th millennia B.C.. Burial jars and other kinds of sepulchers suggest a complex society in which bronze objects appeared around 1500 B.C., and iron tools were known from 700 B.C. The proto-historic period is characterized by contact with Chinese and Indian civilizations. From the fourth to the eighth century, communities along the Mekong River began to form into townships, or Muang as they were called.[12]

Lan Xang

Statue of Fa Ngum, founder of the Lan Xang kingdom

Laos traces its history to the kingdom of Lan Xang (Million Elephants), founded in the 14th century, by a Lao prince, Fa Ngum, who took over Vientiane with 10,000 Khmer troops. Ngum was descended from a long line of Lao kings, tracing back to Khoun Boulom. He made Theravada Buddhism the state religion and Lan Xang prospered. Within 20 years of its formation, the kingdom expanded eastward to Champa and along the Annamite mountains in Vietnam. His ministers, unable to tolerate his ruthlessness, forced him into exile to the present-day Thai province of Nan in 1373,[13] where he later died. Fa Ngum's eldest son, Oun Heuan, came to the throne under the name Samsenthai and reigned for 43 years. During his reign, Lan Xang became an important trade center. After his death in 1421, Lan Xang collapsed into warring factions for the next 100 years.

In 1520, Photisarath came to the throne and moved the capital from Luang Phrabang to Vientiane to avoid Burmese invasion. Setthathirat became king in 1548, after his father was killed, and ordered the construction of what would become the symbol of Laos, That Luang. Setthathirat disappeared in the mountains on his way back from a military expedition into Cambodia and Lan Xang began to rapidly decline. It was not until 1637, when Sourigna Vongsa ascended the throne, that Lan Xang would further expand its frontiers. His reign is often regarded as Laos's golden age. When he died, leaving Lan Xang without an heir, the kingdom divided into three principalities. Between 1763 and 1769, Burmese armies overran northern Laos and annexed Luang Phrabang, while Champasak eventually came under Siamese suzerainty.

Chao Anouvong was installed as a vassal king of Vientiane by the Siamese. He encouraged a renaissance of Lao fine arts and literature and improved relations with Luang Phrabang. Although he was pressured to pay tribute to the Vietnamese, he rebelled against the Siamese. The rebellion failed and Vientiane was ransacked.[14] Anouvong was taken to Bangkok as a prisoner, where he later died.

French Laos

Pha That Luang in Vientiane is the national symbol of Laos.

In the late 19th century, Luang Prabang was ransacked by the Chinese Black Flag Army.[15] France rescued King Oun Kham and added Luang Phrabang to the 'Protectorate' of French Indochina. Shortly after, the Kingdom of Champasak and the territory of Vientiane were also added to the protectorate. King Sisavang Vong of Luang Phrabang became ruler of a unified Laos and Vientiane once again became the capital. Laos never had any importance for France[16] other than as a buffer state between British-influenced Thailand and the more economically important Annam and Tonkin. During their rule, the French introduced the corvee, a system that forced every male Lao to contribute 10 days of manual labor per year to the colonial government. Laos produced tin, rubber, and coffee, but never accounted for more than 1% of French Indochina's exports. By 1940, only 600 French citizens lived in Laos.[17]

Following a brief Japanese occupation during World War II, the country declared its independence on 12 October 1945, but the French under Charles de Gaulle re-asserted control. In 1950 Laos was granted semi-autonomy as an "associated state" within the French Union. France remained in de facto control until 22 October 1953, when Laos gained full independence as a constitutional monarchy.

Independence

King Sisavang Vong of Laos
Forum new.gif This section requires expansion.
References in this section could be improved.
Pathet Lao soldiers in Vientiane

In 1955, the U.S. Department of Defense created a special Programs Evaluation Office to replace French support of the Royal Lao Army against the communist Pathet Lao as part of the U.S. containment policy.

In 1960, amidst a series of rebellions, fighting broke out between the Royal Lao Army and the Pathet Lao. A second Provisional Government of National Unity formed by Prince Souvanna Phouma in 1962 proved to be unsuccessful, and the situation steadily deteriorated into large scale civil war between the Royal Laotian government and the Pathet Lao. The Pathet Lao were backed militarily by the NVA and Vietcong.

Laos was also dragged into the Vietnam War since parts of Laos were invaded and occupied by North Vietnam for use as a supply route for its war against the South. In response, the United States initiated a bombing campaign against the North Vietnamese positions, supported regular and irregular anticommunist forces in Laos and supported South Vietnamese incursions into Laos.

In 1968 the North Vietnamese Army launched a multi-division attack to help the Pathet Lao to fight the Royal Lao Army. The attack resulted in the army largely demobilizing, leaving the conflict to irregular forces raised by the United States and Thailand.

Massive aerial bombardment against Pathet Lao and NVA forces was carried out by the United States in prevent the collapse of Lao's central government and to prevent the use of the Ho Chi Minh Trail. It has been reported that Laos was hit by an average of one B‑52 bombload every eight minutes, 24 hours a day, between 1964 and 1973. U.S. bombers dropped more ordnance on Laos in this period than was dropped during the whole of the World War II. Of the 260 million bombs that rained down, particularly on Xiangkhouang Province on the Plain of Jars, some 80 million failed to explode, leaving a deadly legacy.[18] Laos is the most heavily bombed country, per capita, in the world. Because it was particularly heavily affected by cluster bombs during this war, Laos was a strong advocate of the Convention on Cluster Munitions to ban the weapons and assist victims, and hosted the First Meeting of States Parties to the convention in November 2010.

In 1975, the Pathet Lao, along with Vietnam People's Army and backed by the Soviet Union, overthrew the royalist Lao government, forcing King Savang Vatthana to abdicate on 2 December 1975. He later died in captivity.

On 2 December 1975, after taking control of the country, the Pathet Lao government under Kaysone Phomvihane renamed the country as the Lao People's Democratic Republic and signed agreements giving Vietnam the right to station armed forces and to appoint advisers to assist in overseeing the country. Laos was requested in 1979 by the Socialist Republic of Vietnam to end relations with the People's Republic of China, leading to isolation in trade by China, the United States, and other countries.

The conflict between Hmong rebels and the Pathet Lao continued in isolated pockets. The government of Laos has been accused of committing genocide against the Hmong in collaboration with the Vietnamese army,[19][20] with up to 100,000 killed out of a population of 400,000.[21][22] From 1975 to 1996, the United States resettled some 250,000 Lao refugees from Thailand, including 130,000 Hmong.[23]

Geography

Mekong River flowing through Luang Prabang
Rice fields in Laos

Laos is the only landlocked country in Southeast Asia, and it lies mostly between latitudes 14° and 23°N (a small area is south of 14°), and longitudes 100° and 108°E. Its thickly forested landscape consists mostly of rugged mountains, the highest of which is Phou Bia at 2,818 metres (9,245 ft), with some plains and plateaus. The Mekong River forms a large part of the western boundary with Thailand, whereas the mountains of the Annamite Range form most of the eastern border with Vietnam and the Luang Prabang Range the northwestern border with the Thai highlands. There are two plateaux, the Xiangkhoang in the north and the Bolaven Plateau at the southern end. The climate is tropical and influenced by the monsoon pattern.[24]

There is a distinct rainy season from May to November, followed by a dry season from December to April. Local tradition holds that there are three seasons (rainy, cold and hot) as the latter two months of the climatologically defined dry season are noticeably hotter than the earlier four months. The capital and largest city of Laos is Vientiane and other major cities include Luang Prabang, Savannakhet, and Pakse.[citation needed]

In 1993, the Laos government set aside 21% of the nation's land area for habitat conservation preservation.[25] The country is one of four in the opium poppy growing region known as the "Golden Triangle". According to the October 2007 UNODC fact book "Opium Poppy Cultivation in South East Asia," the poppy cultivation area was 15 square kilometres (5.8 sq mi), down from 18 square kilometres (6.9 sq mi) in 2006.

Laos can be considered to consist of three geographical areas: north, central, and south.[26]

Administrative divisions

Laos is divided into 16 provinces (khoueng) and one prefecture (kampheng nakhon) which includes the capital city Vientiane (Nakhon Louang Viangchan). Provinces are further divided into districts (muang) and then villages (ban). An 'urban' village is essentially a town.[26]

Environmental problems

Laos is increasingly suffering from environmental problems, with deforestation a particularly significant issue,[27] as expanding commercial exploitation of the forests, plans for additional hydroelectric facilities, foreign demand for wild animals and nonwood forest products for food and traditional medicines, and a growing population all create increasing pressure.

The United Nations Development Programme warns that: "Protecting the environment and sustainable use of natural resources in Lao PDR is vital for poverty reduction and economic growth."[28]

In April 2011, The Independent newspaper reported that Laos had started work on the controversial Xayaburi Dam on the Mekong River without getting formal approval. Environmentalists say the dam will adversely affect 60 million people and Cambodia and Vietnam—concerned about the flow of water further downstream—are officially opposed to the project. The Mekong River Commission, a regional intergovernmental body designed to promote the "sustainable management" of the river, famed for its giant catfish, carried out a study that warned if Xayaburi and subsequent schemes went ahead, it would "fundamentally undermine the abundance, productivity and diversity of the Mekong fish resources".[29] Neighbouring Vietnam warned that the dam would harm the Mekong Delta, which is the home to nearly 20 million people and supplies around 50% of Vietnam's rice output and over 70% of both its seafood and fruit outputs.[30]

Milton Osborne, Visiting Fellow at the Lowy Institute for International Policy who has written widely on the Mekong, warns: "The future scenario is of the Mekong ceasing to be a bounteous source of fish and guarantor of agricultural richness, with the great river below China becoming little more than a series of unproductive lakes." [31]

Illegal logging is also a major problem. Environmental groups estimate that Template:Convert/m3 of logs find their way from Laos to Vietnam every year, with most of the furniture eventually exported to western countries.[32]

A 1992 government survey indicated that forests occupied about 48% of Laos' land area. Forest coverage decreased to 41% in a 2002 survey. Lao authorities have said that, in reality, forest coverage might be no more than 35% because of various development projects such as dams, on top of the losses to illegal logging.[33]

Government and politics

Thongsing Thammavong

The Lao People's Democratic Republic, along with China, Cuba, and Vietnam, is one of the world's four remaining socialist states espousing communism. The only legal political party is the Lao People's Revolutionary Party (LPRP). The head of state is President Choummaly Sayasone, who is also the General Secretary of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party. The head of government is Prime Minister Thongsing Thammavong, who is also a senior member of the Politburo of Revolutionary Party. Government policies are determined by the party through the all-powerful eleven-member Political Bureau and the 61-member Central Committee. Important government decisions are vetted by the Council of Ministers.

Laos's first, French-written and monarchical constitution was promulgated on 11 May 1947 and declared Laos to be an independent state within the French Union. The revised constitution of 11 May 1957 omitted reference to the French Union, though close educational, health and technical ties with the former colonial power persisted. The 1957 document was abrogated on 3 December 1975, when a communist People's Republic was proclaimed. A new constitution was adopted in 1991 and enshrined a "leading role" for the LPRP. In 1990, deputy minister for science & technology Thongsouk Saysangkhi resigned from the government and party, calling for political reform. He died in captivity in 1998.[34]

In 1992, elections were held for a new 85-seat National Assembly with members elected by secret ballot to five-year terms. This National Assembly, which essentially acts as a rubber stamp for the LPRP, approves all new laws, although the executive branch retains authority to issue binding decrees. The most recent elections took place in April 2011. The assembly was expanded to 99 members in 1997, to 115 members in 2006 and finally to 132 members during the 2011 elections.[citation needed]

Infrastructure

Rivers are an important means of transport in Laos.

The main international airports are Vientiane's Wattay International Airport and Luang Prabang International Airport with Pakse International Airport also having a few international flights. The national airline is Lao Airlines. Other carriers serving the country include Bangkok Airways, Vietnam Airlines, AirAsia, Thai Airways International and China Eastern Airlines.

Much of the country lacks adequate infrastructure. Laos has no railways, except a short link to connect Vientiane with Thailand over the Thai–Lao Friendship Bridge. A short portage railway, the Don Det–Don Khon narrow-gauge railway was built by the French in Champasak Province but has been closed since the 1940s. In the late 1920s, work began on the Thakhek–Tan Ap railway that would have run between Thakhek, Khammuan Province and Tan Ap Railway Station, Quang Binh Province, Vietnam through the Mua Gia Pass. However, the scheme was aborted in the 1930s. The major roads connecting the major urban centres, in particular Route 13, have been significantly upgraded in recent years, but villages far from major roads can be reached only through unpaved roads that may not be accessible year-round.

There is limited external and internal telecommunication, but mobile phones have become widespread in urban centres. In many rural areas electricity is at least partly available. Songthaews (pick-up trucks with benches) are used in the country for long-distance and local public transport.

Laos has made particularly noteworthy progress increasing access to sanitation and has already met its 2015 Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target.[35] Laos' predominantly rural (68%, source: Department of Statistics, Ministry of Planning and Investment, 2009) population makes investing in sanitation difficult. In 1990 only 8% of the rural population had access to improved sanitation.[35] Access rose rapidly from 10% in 1995 to 38% in 2008. Between 1995 and 2008 approximately 1,232,900 more people had access to improved sanitation in rural areas.[35] Laos' progress is notable in comparison to similar developing countries.[35] This success is in part due to small-scale independent providers emerging in a spontaneous manner or having been promoted by public authorities. Laotian authorities have recently developed an innovative regulatory framework for Public-Private partnership contracts signed with small enterprises, in parallel with more conventional regulation of State-owned water enterprises.[36]

Military

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Human rights

The Constitution that was promulgated in 1991 and amended in 2003 contains most key safeguards for human rights. For example, in Article 8 it makes it clear that Laos is a multiethnic state and is committed to equality between ethnic groups. The Constitution also has provisions for gender equality and freedom of religion, for freedom of speech, press and assembly. On 25 September 2009, Laos ratified the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, nine years after signing the treaty. The stated policy objectives of both the Lao government and international donors remain focused toward achieving sustainable economic growth and poverty reduction.[37][38]

Economy

About 80% of Laos population practices subsistence agriculture.

The Lao economy depends heavily on investment and trade with its neighbours, Thailand, Vietnam, and, especially in the north, China. Pakxe has also experienced growth based on cross-border trade with Thailand and Vietnam. In 2011, the Lao Securities Exchange began trading. In 2012, the government initiated the creation of the Laos Trade Portal, a website incorporating all information traders need to import and export goods into the country.

Subsistence agriculture still accounts for half of the GDP and provides 80% of employment. Only 4.01% of the country is arable land, and a mere 0.34% used as permanent crop land,[39] the lowest percentage in the Greater Mekong Subregion.[40] Rice dominates agriculture, with about 80% of the arable land area used for growing rice.[41] Approximately 77% of Lao farm households are self-sufficient in rice.[42]

Through the development, release and widespread adoption of improved rice varieties, and through economic reforms, production has increased by an annual rate of 5% between 1990 and 2005,[43] and Lao PDR achieved a net balance of rice imports and exports for the first time in 1999.[44] Lao PDR may have the greatest number of rice varieties in the Greater Mekong Subregion. Since 1995 the Lao government has been working with the International Rice Research Institute of the Philippines to collect seed samples of each of the thousands of rice varieties found in Laos.[45]

Morning market in Vientiane

The economy receives development aid from the IMF, ADB and other international sources; and also foreign direct investment for development of the society, industry, hydropower and mining (most notably of copper and gold). Tourism is the fastest-growing industry in the country. Economic development in Laos has been hampered by brain drain, with a skilled emigration rate of 37.4% in 2000.[46]

Laos is rich in mineral resources and imports petroleum and gas. Metallurgy is an important industry, and the government hopes to attract foreign investment to develop the substantial deposits of coal, gold, bauxite, tin, copper and other valuable metals. In addition, the country's plentiful water resources and mountainous terrain enable it to produce and export large quantities of hydroelectric energy. Of the potential capacity of approximately 18,000 megawatts, around 8,000 megawatts have been committed for exporting to Thailand and Vietnam.[47]

The country's most widely recognised product may well be Beerlao which is exported to a number of countries including neighbours Cambodia and Vietnam. It is produced by the Lao Brewery Company.

Tourism

View from near the sanctuary on the main upper level of Wat Phu, looking back towards the Mekong River

The tourism sector has grown rapidly, from 80,000 international visitors in 1990, to 1.876 million in 2010.[48] Tourism is expected to contribute US$679.1 million to gross national product in 2010, rising to US$1,585.7 million by 2020. In 2010, one in every 10.9 jobs was in the tourism sector. Export earnings from international visitors and tourism goods are expected to generate 15.5% of total exports or US$270.3 million in 2010, growing in nominal terms to US$484.2 million (12.5% of total) in 2020.[49]

Hmong girls on the Plain of Jars

Laos has become popular with tourists for its relaxed style of living and for retaining elements of the "original Asia" lost elsewhere. The official tourism slogan is "Simply Beautiful". The main attractions for tourists include Buddhist culture and colonial architecture in Luang Prabang; gastronomy and ancient temples in the capital of Vientiane; backpacking in Muang Ngoi Neua and Vang Vieng; ancient and modern culture and history in The Plain of Jars region (main article: Phonsavan); Laos Civil War history in Sam Neua; Trekking and visiting hill tribes in a number of areas including Phongsaly and Luang Namtha; spotting tigers and other wildlife in Nam Et-Phou Louey; caves and waterfalls near Thakhek; relaxation, the Irrawaddy dolphin and Khone Phapheng Falls at Si Phan Don or, as they are known in English, the Four Thousand Islands; Wat Phu, an ancient Khmer temple complex; and the Bolaven Plateau for waterfalls and coffee.

Luang Prabang and Wat Phu are both UNESCO World Heritage sites, with the Plain of Jars expected to join them once more work to clear UXO has been completed. Major festivals include Laos New Year which is celebrated around 13–15 April and involves a water festival similar but more subdued than that of Thailand and other South-East Asian countries.

The Lao National Tourism Administration, related government agencies and the private sector are working together to realise the vision put forth in the country's National Ecotourism Strategy and Action Plan. This includes decreasing the environmental and cultural impact of tourism; increasing awareness in the importance of ethnic groups and biological diversity; providing a source of income to conserve, sustain and manage the Lao protected area network and cultural heritage sites; and emphasising the need for tourism zoning and management plans for sites that will be developed as ecotourism destinations.[50] FruitFriends is a non-profit organisation promoting tourism through immersion programs and this with minimal impact on environment and culture.

Laos is known for its silk and local handicraft product, both of which are on display in Luang Prabang's night market, among other places. Another speciality is mulberry tea.

Demographics

Buddhist monks collecting alms at dawn in Luang Prabang

The term "Laotian" does not necessarily refer to the Lao language, ethnic Lao people, language or customs, but is a political term that also includes the non-ethnic Lao groups within Laos and identifies them as "Laotian" because of their political citizenship. Laos has the youngest population of any country in Asia with a median age of 19.3 years.

Laos' population was estimated at 6.5 million in 2012, dispersed unevenly across the country. Most people live in valleys of the Mekong River and its tributaries. Vientiane prefecture, the capital and largest city, had about 740,010 residents in 2008. The country's population density was 27/km2.[1]

Ethnicity

The people of Laos are often considered by their altitudinal distribution (lowlands, midlands and highlands) as this approximates ethnic groups.

Lao Loum (lowland people)

60% of the country's people are ethnic Lao, the principal lowland inhabitants and the politically and culturally dominant group. The Lao belong to the Tai linguistic group who began migrating southward from China in the first millennium AD. 10% belong to other "lowland" groups, which together with the Lao people make up the Lao Loum.

Lao Theung (midland people)

A Laotian woman and her child

In the central and southern mountains, Mon-Khmer tribes, known as Lao Theung or mid-slope Laotians, predominate. Other terms are Khmu, Khamu (Kammu) or Kha as the Lao Loum refer to them as indicating their Austroasiatic origins. However the latter is considered pejorative, meaning 'slave'. They were the indigenous inhabitants of northern Laos. Some Vietnamese, Chinese and Thailand Thai minorities remain, particularly in the towns, but many left after independence in the late 1940s, many of whom relocated either to Vietnam, Hong Kong, or to France. Lao Theung constitute about 30% of the population.[51]

Lao Soung (highland people)

Hill people and minority cultures of Laos such as the Hmong, Yao (Mien), Dao, Shan, and several Tibeto-Burman speaking peoples have lived in isolated regions of Laos for many years. Mountain/hill tribes of mixed ethno/cultural-linguistic heritage are found in northern Laos which include the Lua and Khmu people who are indigenous to Laos. Today, the Lua people are considered endangered. Collectively, they are known as Lao Soung or highland Laotians. Lao Soung account for only about 10% of the population.[52]

Languages

Buddhist Monks in front of Wat Sen, Luang Prabang
Buddhist shrine in Vientiane

The official and dominant language is Lao, a tonal language of the Tai linguistic group. However only slightly more than half of the population can speak Lao, the remainder speaking various ethnic minority languages, particularly in rural areas. The written language is based on Khmer writing script. Languages like Khmu and Hmong are spoken by minorities, particularly in the midland and highland areas.

French is still commonly used in government and commerce and over a third of Laos' students are educated through the medium of French with French being compulsory for all other students. Throughout the country signage is bilingual in Laotian and French, with French being predominant. English, the language of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), has become increasingly studied in recent years.[53]

Health

Male life expectancy at birth was at 60.85 and female life expectancy was at 64.76 in 2012.[54] Healthy life expectancy was at 54 in 2006.[55] In 2008, 43% of the population did not have access to an improved water resource.[54] Government expenditure on health is at about 4% of the GDP.[55] Its amount was at US$ 18 (PPP) in 2006.[55]

Religion

Of the people of Laos 67% are Theravada Buddhist, 1.5% are Christian, and 31.5% are other or unspecified according to the 2005 census.[54] Buddhism has long been one of the most important social forces in Laos.

Theravada Buddhism along with the common animism practiced among the mountain tribes, coexists peacefully with spirit worship. Christians live mainly in the Vientiane area, Christian missionary work is regulated by the government.

Education

The adult literacy rate exceeds two thirds.[56] The male literacy rate exceeds the female literacy rate.[55] In 2004 the net primary enrollment rate was at 84%.[55] The National University of Laos is the Laos state's public university. The total literacy rate is 73% (2010 estimate).

Culture

An example of Lao cuisine
Lao dancers during New Year

Theravada Buddhism is a dominant influence in Lao culture. It is reflected throughout the country from language to the temple and in art, literature, performing arts, etc. Many elements of Lao culture predate Buddhism, however. For example, Laotian music is dominated by its national instrument, the khaen, a type of bamboo pipe that has prehistoric origins. The khaen traditionally accompanied the singer in lam, the dominant style of folk music. Among the various lam styles, the lam saravane is probably the most popular.

Sticky Rice is a characteristic staple food and has cultural and religious significance to the Lao people. Sticky rice is generally preferred over jasmine rice, and sticky rice cultivation and production is thought to have originated in Laos. There are many traditions and rituals associated with rice production in different environments, and among many ethnic groups. For example, Khammu farmers in Luang Prabang plant the rice variety Khao Kam in small quantities near the hut in memory of dead parents, or at the edge of the rice field to indicate that parents are still alive.[57]

Marriage

Polygamy is officially a crime in Laos, though the penalty is minor. The constitution and Family Code bars the legal recognition of polygamous marriages, stipulating that monogamy is to be the principal way to contract a marriage in the country. Polygamy, however, is still customary among some Hmong people.[58]

Media

All newspapers are published by the government, including two foreign language papers: the English-language daily Vientiane Times and the French-language weekly Le Rénovateur. Additionally, the Khao San Pathet Lao, the country's official news agency, publishes English and French versions of its eponymous paper. Laos currently has nine daily newspapers, 90 magazines, 43 radio stations and 32 TV stations operating throughout the country.[59] Nhân Dân (The People) and the Xinhua News Agency are the only foreign media organisations permitted so far to open offices in Laos. Both opened bureaus in Vientiane in 2011.[60] Internet cafes are now common in the major urban centres and are popular especially with the younger generation.


See also

Notes and references

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Background notes – Laos. US Department of State. URL accessed on 20 January 2012.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Report for Selected Countries and Subjects. World Economic Outlook Database. International Monetary Fund. URL accessed on 22 January 2013.
  3. These same pronunciations using Wikipedia's pronunciation respelling key: LOWSS, LAH-oss, LAH-ohss, LAY-oss.
  4. definition of Laos from Oxford Dictionaries Online. Oxforddictionaries.com. URL accessed on 24 July 2011.
  5. Laos – Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Merriam-webster.com. URL accessed on 24 July 2011.
  6. "Laos approves Xayaburi 'mega' dam on Mekong", 5 November 2012. 
  7. Laos Securities Exchange to start trading. Ft.com. URL accessed on 23 January 2011.
  8. [1]. WTO. Retrieved on 2013-01-27.
  9. Kislenko, Arne (2009). Culture and customs of Laos. ABC-CLIO. p. 20. . http://books.google.com/books?id=D6CuONua48MC&pg=PR20. 
  10. Hayashi, Yukio (2003). Practical Buddhism among the Thai-Lao: religion in the making of a region. Trans Pacific Press. p. 31. . http://books.google.com/books?id=SZ73WQmu0iEC&pg=PA31. 
  11. Lao Skull Earliest Example of Modern Human Fossil in Southeast Asia. Science News, 20 August 2012.
  12. Facts on Laos. Laos National Tourism Association. URL accessed on 24 December 2011.
  13. Fa Ngum. History.com. URL accessed on 23 January 2011.
  14. Let's hope Laos hangs on to its identity. Asianewsnet.net. URL accessed on 23 January 2011.
  15. Librios Semantic Environment. Laos: Laos under the French. Culturalprofiles.net. URL accessed on 23 January 2011.
  16. Joe Cummings; Andrew Burke (2005). Laos. Lonely Planet. pp. 23–. . http://books.google.com/books?id=A61wRiwTbPgC&pg=PA23. 
  17. History of Laos. Lonelyplanet.com. URL accessed on 23 January 2011.
  18. MacKinnon, Ian. "Forty years on, Laos reaps bitter harvest of the secret war", The Guardian, 3 December 2008. Retrieved on 7 May 2010. 
  19. Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization. WGIP: Side event on the Hmong Lao, at the United Nations. URL accessed on 20 April 2011.
  20. Jane Hamilton-Merritt, Tragic Mountains: The Hmong, the Americans, and the Secret Wars for Laos, 1942–1992 (Indiana University Press, 1999), pp337-460
  21. Forced Back and Forgotten (Lawyers’ Committee for Human Rights, 1989), p8.
  22. Statistics of Democide Rudolph Rummel
  23. Laos (04/09). U.S. Department of State.
  24. Laos – Climate. Countrystudies.us. URL accessed on 23 January 2011.
  25. Laos travel guides. Indochinatrek.com. URL accessed on 23 January 2011.
  26. 26.0 26.1 Nsc Lao Pdr. Nsc.gov.la. URL accessed on 21 January 2012.
  27. Laos Environmental problems & Policy. United Nations Encyclopedia of the Nations. URL accessed on 20 April 2011.
  28. Energy & Environment for Sustainable Development. United Nations Development Programme. URL accessed on 20 April 2011.
  29. Buncombe, Andrew. "Mekong ecology in the balance as Laos quietly begins work on dam", The Independent, 20 April 2011. Retrieved on 20 April 2011. 
  30. Vietnam worries about impacts from Laos hydroelectric project. Voices for the Laotian Who do not have Voices. URL accessed on 20 April 2011.
  31. Osborne, Milton. Mekong dam plans threatening the natural order. The Australian.
  32. U.S. furniture demand drives illegal logging in Laos. illegal-logging.info. URL accessed on 20 April 2011.
  33. Illegal Logging Increasingly Prevalent in Laos. voanews.com. URL accessed on 20 April 2011.
  34. Amnesty International. Thongsouk Saysangkhi's death.
  35. 35.0 35.1 35.2 35.3 O'Meally, Simon (2010). Lao PDR's progress in rural sanitation. London: Overseas Development Institute
  36. (2008). Focales n°8. afd.fr. URL accessed on 17 February 2011.
  37. Lao PDR. World Bank. URL accessed on 24 July 2011.
  38. Constitution of the Lao PDR. (PDF) URL accessed on 24 July 2011.
  39. Field Listing – Land use, CIA World Factbook
  40. About Greater Mekong Subregion at Asian Development Bank
  41. Rice: The Fabric of Life in Laos. Lao_IRRI Project
  42. Joyce Gorsuch Genuinely Lao, Rice Today, April–June 2006
  43. Fifteen years of support for rice research in Lao PDR
    Asia brief: Filling the rice basket in Lao PRD partnership results
    Genuinely Lao, Prepared by IRRI’s International Programs Management Office
  44. The Green Revolution comes to Laos. Eurekalert.org. URL accessed on 27 June 2010.
  45. A Race Against Time. (PDF) URL accessed on 27 June 2010.
  46. Çaḡlar Özden; Maurice W. Schiff (2006). International migration, remittances, and the brain drain. World Bank Publications. . http://books.google.com/books?id=khtB0xgugD8C. 
  47. Preparing the Cumulative Impact Assessment for the Nam Ngum 3 Hydropower Project: Financed by the Japan Special Fund. (PDF) URL accessed on 27 June 2010.
  48. International visitor data. World Travel & Tourism Council. URL accessed on 20 January 2011.
  49. Laos – Key Facts. World Travel & Tourism Council. URL accessed on 20 January 2011.
  50. The Lao People's Democratic Republic's Vision for Ecotourism. URL accessed on 20 January 20114.
  51. Khmu people of Laos. OMF International. Omf.org. URL accessed on 23 January 2011.
  52. Encyclopædia Britannica: Laos – Ethnic groups and languages. Britannica.com. URL accessed on 23 January 2011.
  53. Languages of Laos. Laval University. URL accessed on 9 July 2012.
  54. 54.0 54.1 54.2 Laos. CIA – The World Factbook. Cia.gov. Retrieved on 2013-01-27.
  55. 55.0 55.1 55.2 55.3 55.4 HDRstats.undp.org. HDRstats.undp.org. URL accessed on 27 June 2010.
  56. Human Development Report 2009 – Lao People's Democratic Republic. Hdrstats.undp.org. URL accessed on 27 June 2010.
  57. Evaluation Synthesis of Rice in Lao PDR. (PDF) URL accessed on 27 June 2010.
  58. Lao PDR: Family Code. Genderindex.org. URL accessed on 23 January 2011.
  59. Vientiane Times, 18 February 2011
  60. Vietnamese newspaper opens office in Laos. Laovoices.com (19 July 2011). Retrieved on 2013-01-27.

External links

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