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Sudan, officially the Republic of the Sudan, (Arabic: السودان ‎As Sūdān) is a country in northeastern Africa. It is the largest country in Africa and in the Arab World, and tenth largest in the world by area. It is bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea to the northeast, Eritrea and Ethiopia to the east, Kenya and Uganda to the southeast, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Central African Republic to the southwest, Chad to the west and Libya to the northwest. The world's longest river, the Nile River, bisects the country from south to north.

The people of Sudan have a long history extending from antiquity, which is intertwined with the history of Egypt, with which it was united politically over several periods. Sudan's modern history has been plagued by civil wars stemming from ethnic, religious, and economic conflict between the Muslim Northern Sudanese (with Arab and Nubian roots), and the Christian and animist Nilotes of Southern Sudan.

Sudan is (as of 2009) ranked as the third most politically unstable country in the world according to the Failed States Index, mainly because of the ongoing humanitarian crisis in Darfur, the high score of delegitimization of the state, and the wide spread violation of human rights.

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