Communist Party of India (Maoist)

From Communpedia
Revision as of 13:34, 1 June 2013 by Fred Bauder (talk | contribs) (From Wikipedia, 2013)
(diff) ← Older revision | Latest revision (diff) | Newer revision → (diff)
Jump to: navigation, search
As this subject is related to Britain, use of British English Wp→ is best.
Please use day/month/year dates when editing this article.

Not to be confused with Communist Party of India or Communist Party of India (Marxist).

For other uses, see Naxalism.

This article needs to have better references
Communist Party of India (Maoist)
South Asian Communist Banner.svg
Logo of Communist Party of India (Maoist)
Leader(s) Muppala Lakshmana Rao
Active region(s) India
Ideology Marxism–Leninism
Status India Under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act designated as terrorist organisation by the Government of India[1]
Template:Country data Madhya Pradesh Designated as Unlawful Association by the Madhya Pradesh government[1]
Template:Country data Andhra Pradesh Designated as Unlawful Association by the Andhra Pradesh government[1]
Designated as Unlawful Association by the Chhattisgarh government[1]
Size 10,000–20,000 operatives (2010)[2]

The Communist Party of India (Maoist) is an underground political party in India which aims to overthrow the government of India through people's war.[3] It was founded on 21 September 2004, through the merger of the Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) People's War (People's War Group), and the Maoist Communist Centre of India (MCCI). The merger was announced on 14 October the same year. In the merger a provisional central committee was constituted, with the erstwhile People's War Group leader Muppala Lakshmana Rao, alias "Ganapathi", as general secretary.[4]

The CPI (Maoist) are often referred to as Naxalites in reference to the Naxalbari insurrection conducted by radical Maoists in West Bengal in 1967.

The present draft document has been finalised by Joint CC of the erstwhile CPI (ML)[PW] and the MCCI in September 2004 after extensive discussions. Five draft documents were prepared after intense discussions in a series of bilateral meetings held between the high-level delegations of the two erstwhile parties between February 2003 and September 2004. The Joint CC meeting deeply studied these five draft documents, freely exchanged the rich experiences acquired through the revolutionary practice during the past three decades and more, and arrived at a common understanding on several vexed questions confronting the Indian revolution in the backdrop of the international developments.

The present document – Party Constitution – is the synthesis of all the positive points in the documents of the two erstwhile parties, as well as their experiences in the course of waging the people’s war, fighting against revisionism, and right and left opportunist trends in the Indian and international communist movement, and building a stable and consistent revolutionary movement in various parts of the country.

They claim to be fighting for the rights of the tribes in the forest belt around central India-Chattisgharh, Odisha, Bihar, Jharkhand, Maharastra, and West Bengal. New organizational expansion has been reported in Uttarakhand, Assam, Manipur, Nagaland, Tamil Nadu, and Karnataka. That region contains deposits of minerals[5] which are of interest to mining companies like Tata and Essar.

Naxals have been charged by the government with running an extortion economy in the guise of a popular revolution, extorting vast amounts of money from local branches of mining companies and other businesses.[6][7][8] They have been involved in several cases of blowing up schools and railway tracks, and accused of keeping the areas under their control away from modernity and development, typically the uneducated rural populace.[6][9][10][11][12]

In 2006, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh referred to the Naxalites as "the single biggest internal security challenge ever faced by our country."[6][13] The Indian government, led by the United Progressive Alliance, banned the CPI (Maoist) under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act (UAPA) as a terrorist organisation[14] on 22 June 2009. As of June 2010, the Indian government has identified 83 districts in nine states as "Naxal-hit".[15]


Communism in India

Communist Party of India

Communist Party of India (Marxist)


Communist Ghadar Party of India
Naxalbari uprising
Communist Party of India (M-L)
Liberation - New Democracy
Janashakti - PCC - 2nd CC
Red Flag - Class Struggle
Communist Party of India (Maoist)

Socialist Unity Centre of India (Communist)

M. N. Roy
Abani Mukherji
A. K. Gopalan
P. Krishna Pillai
P. C. Joshi
P. Sundarayya
Ajoy Ghosh
K. Damodaran
E. M. S. Namboodiripad
Chandra Rajeshwar Rao Azhikodan Raghavan
Bhupesh Gupta V. S. Achuthanandan
E. K. Nayanar
Guru Radha Kishan
B. T. Ranadive
Charu Majumdar
Jyoti Basu
S. A. Dange
Shibdas Ghosh
E. K. Imbichi Bava
T. Nagi Reddy

Tebhaga movement
Telangana Rebellion
Comrades Association
Communist Party of French India

World Communist Movement

According to the South Asia Terrorism Portal, the two factions of the Party adhered to differing strands of communism prior to their 2004 merger, although "both organizations shared their belief in the 'annihilation of class enemies' and in extreme violence as a means to secure organizational goals." The People's War Group (PWG) maintained a Marxist-Leninist stance, while the Maoist Communist Centre of India (MCCI) took a Maoist stance. After the merger, the PWG secretary of Andhra Pradesh announced that the newly formed CPI-Maoist would follow Marxism-Leninism-Maoism as its "ideological basis guiding its thinking in all spheres of its activities." Included in this ideology is a commitment to "protracted armed struggle" to undermine and to seize power from the state.[4]

The ideology of the party is contained in a "Party Programme." In the document, the Maoists denounce globalisation as a war on the people by market fundamentalists and the caste system as a form of social oppression.[16]

The Communist Party of India (Maoist) claim that they are conducting a "people's war", a strategic approach developed by Mao Zedong during the guerrilla warfare phase of the Communist Party of China. Their eventual objective is to install a "people’s government" via a New Democratic Revolution.[16]

Views on Islamic upsurge

The CPI (Maoist) views Islamic upsurge as a struggle towards national liberation against imperialism, rather than as a clash of civilisations, and Vinod Anand claims that in the past, some of the party members have described it as "a progressive anti-imperialist force in the contemporary world."[16] In the words of Kishenji: "The Islamic upsurge should not be opposed as it is basically anti-US and anti-imperialist in nature. We, therefore, want it to grow".[16]


Currently the Party has a presence in remote regions of Jharkhand and Andhra Pradesh, as well as in Bihar and the tribal-dominated areas in the borderlands of Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, West Bengal, and Odisha. The CPI (Maoist) aims to consolidate its power in this area and establish a Compact Revolutionary Zone from which to advance the people's war in other parts of India.[4] A 2005 Frontline cover story called the Bhamragad Taluka, where the Madia Gond Adivasis live, the heart of the Naxalite-affected region in Maharashtra.[17]


The current General Secretary of CPI (Maoist) is Muppala Lakshmana Rao, who uses the alias "Ganapathy".[18] The party hierarchy consists of the Regional Bureaus, which look after two or three states each, the State Committees, the Zonal Committees, the District Committees, and the "dalams" (armed squads).[19]


The highest decision making body of the ultra-leftist political party is the Politburo, comprising thirteen or fourteen[20] members, six of whom were killed or arrested between 2007 and 2010. Prashant Bose alias "Kishan-da" and Katakam Sudarshan alias Anand,[21] are the two most prominent Politburo members of CPI (Maoist). Sudhakar alias "Kiran" is another Politburo member of CPI (Maoist).[22] Amongst those jailed, Kobad Ghandy is the one of most momentous Politburo member of the party.[23] Other arrested Politburo members of the party between 2005 to 2011 include Pramod Mishra, Akhilesh Yadav, Amitabh Bagchi, Baccha Prasad Singh, Narayan Sanyal and Sushil Roy.[24] Ashutosh Tudu is another one of the captured Politburo members of the party.[20] Among those assassinated, Cherukuri Rajkumar alias "Azad"[25][20] and Mallojula Koteswara Rao alias "Kishenji",[26] were the two senior-most prominent members of the CPI (Maoist)'s Politburo.

Central Committee

The Central Committee of the ultra-leftist political party takes command from the Politburo and passes on the information to its members, and has 32 members. During an interview in 2010, Anand told media personnels that out of the 45 members of the Central Committee of CPI (Maoist), 8 has been arrested and 22 has been killed by the agencies of the Indian government.[27] Anuradha Ghandy, who passed away on 12 April 2008, was an eminent member of CPI (Maoist)'s Central Committee.[28] Kadari Satyanarayan alias "Kosa", Thippiri Tirupathi alias "Devuji" and Mallojula Venugopal alias "Bhupati" are another three cadres and Central Committee members of the party.[29] Narmada Akka who was killed on 4 December 2012 by the State's police forces, was also a Central Committee member of the party, and reportedly, the in charge of the female cadres of CPI (Maoist).[22]

Publication division

CPI (Maoist) also has a publication division. Besides volunteering as a polit bureau member of the party, Sudhakar alias "Kiran" also works for its publication division.[22]

Estimated strength

The military wings of the founding organisations, the People's Liberation Guerrilla Army (the military wing of the MCCI) and the People's Guerrilla Army (the military wing of the PW), also underwent a merger. The name of the unified military organisation is the People's Liberation Guerrilla Army.

P.V. Ramana, of the Observer Research Foundation in Delhi, estimates the Naxilities' current strength at 9,000–10,000 armed fighters, with access to about 6,500 firearms.[30] Other estimates by Indian intelligence officials and Maoist leaders suggest that the rebel ranks in India number between 10,000 and 20,000, with at least 50,000 active supporters.[6][31]

Frontal organisations

The frontal organisations of the party include the Radical Youth League, Rythu Coolie Sangham, Radical Students Union, Singareni Karmika Samakhya, Viplava Karmika Samakhya and All India Revolutionary Students Federation.[32]


Governance tactics

In their efforts to intimidate and consolidate control, the Naxalites tax local villagers, extort businesses, abduct and kill "class enemies" such as government officials and police officers, and regulate the flow of aid and goods.[6] To help fill their ranks, the Maoists force each family under their domain to supply one family member, and threaten those who resist with violence.[33]

The organisation has been holding "Public Courts", which have been described as kangaroo courts,[34][35] against their opponents. These "courts" function in the areas under de facto Maoist control.[36] The Maoists have also taken care to demolish government institutions under their de facto jurisdiction.[37]

Military tactics

The Party retains the tactics of its predecessor, the Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) People's War, of rejecting parliamentary democracy and capturing political power through protracted armed struggle based on guerrilla warfare. This strategy entails building up bases in rural and remote areas and transforming them first into guerrilla zones, and then into "liberated zones", in addition to encircling cities.

The military hardware used by Maoists, as indicated through a number of seizures, include RDX cable wires, gelatine sticks, detonators, country-made weapons, INSAS rifles, AK-47s, SLRs, and improvised explosive devices. According to MHA reports, as of October 2008, the CRPF has seized over 6,000 kilograms (13,000 lb) of explosives in Bihar and 893 kilograms (1,970 lb) in Jharkhand. Security forces also recovered codex wire in Jharkhand; this is a highly potent explosive with a blast-range of up to 720 metres (2,360 ft), which has so far been used only by modern national armies.[38]


Some sources claims that the funding for the Maoists comes from abductions, extortion and by setting up unofficial administrations to collect taxes in rural areas where official government appears absent.[6][39][40] Poppy cultivation is another major source of funding for Maoists in the Ghagra area of Gumla district in Jharkhand and in parts of Gumla, Kishanganj and Purnia districts in Bihar. Security forces claim that opium fields are hidden among maize crops. Reports from Debagarh district in Odisha indicate that the Naxals also support hemp cultivation to help fund their activities.[40]

But, Ganapathy has discarded all such claims as false accusations.[41] Responding to the accusations, he e-mailed The Hindu's correspondent:
“The party mainly collects donations from the people and funds from the traders in our guerrilla zones... [We] also collect rational levy from contractors who take up various works in our areas.”[41]

Legal status

Template:Terrorist organisations active in India The party is regarded as a "left-wing extremist entity" and a terrorist outfit by the Indian government. Several of their members have been arrested under the now-defunct Prevention of Terrorist Activities Act.[4][42] The group is officially banned by the state governments of Odisha,[43] Chattisgarh, and Andhra Pradesh, among others. The party has protested these bans.[44] On 22 June 2009, the central home ministry, keeping in mind the growing unlawful activities by the group, banned it under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act (UAPA).[45] Earlier, the union home minister, P. Chidambaram had asked the West Bengal Chief Minister, Buddhadeb Bhattacharjee, to ban the Maoists following the Lalgarh Violence.[46]

Following the ban, the Maoists are liable for arrest under the UAPA. After the ban, they are barred from holding rallies, public meetings and demonstrations, and their offices, if any, will be sealed and their bank accounts frozen.[citation needed]



The Party is regarded as a serious security threat and the Indian government is taking countermeasures, pulling the affected states together to coordinate their response. It says it will combine improved policing with socio-economic measures to defuse grievances that fuel the Maoist cause.[33] In 2005, Chattisgarh State sponsored an anti-Maoist movement called the Salwa Judum. The group, which the BBC alleges is "government backed", [47] an allegation rejected by the Indian government[48][49] has come under criticism for "perpetrating atrocities and abuse against women",[50] using child soldiers,[36] and the looting of property and destruction of homes.[50] These allegations were rejected by a fact-finding commission of the National Human Rights Commission of India, appointed by the Supreme Court of India, who determined that the Salwa Judum was a spontaneous reaction by tribes against Maoist atrocities perpetrated against them.[51][52] The camps are guarded by police officers, paramilitary forces and child soldiers[33][36] empowered with the official title "special police officer."[36][53] However, on 5 July 2011, the Supreme Court of India declared the Salwa Judum as illegal and unconstitutional. The court directed the Chhattisgarh government to recover all the firearms given to the militia along with the ammunition and accessories. It also ordered the government to investigate all instances of alleged criminal activities of Salwa Judum.[54]

International connections

The CPI (Maoist) maintains dialogue with the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) who control most of Nepal in the Coordination Committee of Maoist Parties and Organizations of South Asia (CCOMPOSA), according to several intelligence sources and think tanks.[4] These links are, however, denied by the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist)[55]

While under detention in June 2009, a suspected Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT) operative indicated that the LeT and the CPI (Maoist) had attempted to coordinate activities in Jharkhand state.[56] Reports in 2010 indicate that the Maoist Communist Party of the Philippines, Southeast Asia’s longest-lived communist insurgent group, has been reported to have engaged in training activities for guerrilla warfare with Indian Maoists.[57]

The Indian Maoists deny operational links with foreign groups, such as the Nepalese Maoists, but do claim comradeship.[58] Some members of the Indian government accept this,[59] while others argue that operational links do exist, with training coming from Sri-Lankan Maoists and small arms from China.[60] China denies, and is embarrassed by, any suggestion that it supports foreign Maoist rebels, citing improvements in relations between India and China, including movement towards resolving their border disputes. Maoists in Nepal, India, and the Philippines are less reticent about their shared goals.[61]

Timeline of incidents










See also

This page uses content from Wikimedia Commons. The original media file was at Communist Party of India (Maoist).
The list of authors can be seen in the page history. Media files on MediaWiki Commons are Reusable outside Wikimedia. Text released under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 CPI (Maoist) included in list of terrorist organizations to avoid any ambiguity. Press Information Bureau.
  3. Ridge, Mian. "Maoists' hijacking of Indian train reveals new audacity", The Christian Science Monitor, 29 October 2009. Retrieved on 2009-12-14. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Communist Party of India-Maoist (CPI-Maoist). South Asia Terrorism Portal. Institute for Conflict Management. URL accessed on 2010-01-19.
  5. Chhattisgarh state – Mining
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 Robinson, Simon. "India's Secret War", Time Inc., 29 May 2008. 
  7. Naxal extortion economy: Rs 2000 crore a year
  8. 5 suspected Naxals held for extortion
  9. Naxals blow up school in Aurangabad
  10. Naxals blow up school in Dantewada
  11. Orissa:Naxals blow up 4 school buildings
  12. Naxals blow up rail tracks, school in Jharkhand
  13. "India's Naxalite Rebellion: The red heart of India", The Economist Newspaper Limited, 5 November 2009. Retrieved on 2010-01-30. 
  15. "Red terror: Over 10,000 people killed in last 5 years", Yahoo, 25 June 2010. Retrieved on 2010-06-25.  [dead link]
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 Anand, Vinod (2009). "Naxalite ideology, strategy and tactics" (PDF). Studies & Comments 9 – Security in South Asia: Conventional and Unconventional Factors of Destabilization (Munich: Hanns Seidel Foundation) 9: 19–32. Retrieved 2010-01-19. 
  17. Guerilla zone, Frontline, 22(21), 8–21 October 2005 DIONNE BUNSHA in Gadchiroli
  18. Pandita, Rahul “We Shall Certainly Defeat the Government” - Somewhere in the impregnable jungles of Dandakaranya, the supreme commander of CPI (Maoist) spoke to Open on issues ranging from the Government’s proposed anti-Naxal offensive to Islamist Jihadist movements. OPEN. URL accessed on 1 June 2013.
  19. Mohan, Vishwa. "A band of eight that calls the shots", The Times of India, 7 April 2010. Retrieved on 7 April 2010.  [dead link]
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 Bhattacharya,, Snigdhendu. "‘Will take revenge if Azad is harmed’", Hindustan Times, 21 March 2010. Retrieved on 8 April 2010. 
  21. Bhattacharya, Ravik. "Hardline strategist to replace Kishenji", Hindustan Times, 23 November 2012. Retrieved on 31 May 2013. 
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 Maitra, Pradip Kumar. "Woman naxal leader killed in Gadchiroli", Hindustan Times, 27 December 2012. Retrieved on 31 May 2013. 
  23. Bhatt, Sheila. "Kobad Ghandy: The gentle revolutionary", Rediff, 23 September 2009. Retrieved on 31 May 2013. 
  24. Jain, Bharti. "Ganapathy, Kishanji on top of government's most-wanted Maoists list", The Economic Times, 22 September 2011. Retrieved on 1 June 2013. 
  25. "Azad's killing: Some unanswered questions", Rediff, Rediff. Retrieved on 31 May 2013. 
  26. "Hundreds pay last respects to Kishenji in Andhra Pradesh", PTI, India Today Group, 27 November 2011. Retrieved on 31 May 2013. 
  27. Radhakrishna, G. S.. "Portrait of ‘mastermind’", 7 April 2010. Retrieved on 31 May 2013. 
  28. Pandita, Rahul The Rebel - She was born into privilege and could easily have chosen the easy life. But Anuradha Ghandy chose guns over roses to fight for the dispossessed.. OPEN. URL accessed on 31 May 2013.
  29. Reddy, K. Srinivas. "Maoists from Andhra Pradesh may have planned Chhattisgarh ambush", The Hindu, 6 April 2010. Retrieved on 1 June 2013. 
  30. "A spectre haunting India", the Economist Volume 380 Number 8491 (19-25 August 2006)
  31. Sengupta, Somini. "In India, Maoist Guerrillas Widen 'People's War'", The New York Times Company, 16 April, 2006. Retrieved on 2010-01-28. 
  32. Andrapradesh: Ban on CPI Maoist and front organisations extended for one more year. Indian Vanguard. URL accessed on 2012-04-26.
  33. 33.0 33.1 33.2 "Caught between Rebels and Vigilantes", Reuters, 27 August 2008. Retrieved on 2010-01-30. 
  34. The Telegraph, Calcutta, 14 April 2010
  35. Deccan Chronicle, 27 August 2009
  36. 36.0 36.1 36.2 36.3 "The Adivasis of Chhattisgarh: Victims of the Naxalite Movement and Salwa Judum Campaign." (PDF). Asian Centre for Human Rights (New Delhi: Asian Centre for Human Rights): 42. 2006. Retrieved 2010-04-12. 
  37. Maoists use guns to enforce poverty Daily Pioneer – 1 November 2009
  38. The Telegraph, 16 October 2008
  39. Zissis, Carin Backgrounder: Terror Groups in India. Council on Foreign Relations. URL accessed on 2010-01-29.
  40. 40.0 40.1 Srivastava, Devyani (2009). "Terrorism & Armed Violence in India". IPCS Special Report (Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies) 71: 7–11. Retrieved 2010-08-26. 
  41. 41.0 41.1 Sethi, Aman. "Maoists consolidating control, says CPI (Maoist) leader", 10 November 2010. Retrieved on 26 May 2013. 
  42. Article on CPI_M,MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base
  43. Eastern Indian state bans communist rebel group,The China Post
  44. Maoists plan stir,The Hindu
  45. "Centre bans CPI (Maoist), declares it a terror organisation", Zee News. Retrieved on 2009-06-22. 
  46. "Centre declares Maoists a terrorist organisation", Times of India, 22 June 2009. Retrieved on 2009-06-22. 
  47. "Indian state 'backing vigilantes'", BBC, 15 July 2008. Retrieved on 2010-04-12. 
  48. Hearing plea against Salwa Judum, SC says State cannot arm civilians to kill Indian Express, 1 April 2008.
  49. SC raps Chattisgarh on Salwa Judum, 31 March 2008.
  50. 50.0 50.1 "Report recommends withdrawal of Salwa Judum", The Hindu Group, 19 January 2007. Retrieved on 2010-04-12.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "The_Hindu" defined multiple times with different content
  51. 'Existence of Salwa Judum necessary' The Economic Times, 6 October 2008.
  52. DNAIndia
  53. Child Soldiers in Chhattisgarh: Issues, Challenges and FFDA’s Response. Other India Press. URL accessed on 2010-04-12.
  54. Venkatesan, J.. "Salwa Judum is illegal, says SC", The Hindu Group, 5 July 2011. Retrieved on 2011-11-26. 
  55. "Nepali Maoists Deny Ongoing Links with Indian Counterparts" by Jason Motlagh, World Politics Review. 6/12/08 [dead link]
  56. Madni revealed LeT links with Maoists: Police – India – The Times of India
  57. RP Reds now train Maoist rebs in India –, Philippine News for Filipinos
  58. Naxalites hosted Nepalese Maoist leader in Kolkata
  59. Chennai Centre for China Studies – B.Raman, Cabinet Secretariat (retd), Govt. of India
  60. India probes Maoists' foreign links – Asia Times – Nov 11, 2009
  61. Nepal Maoists, India & China – by B.Raman
  62. 6 cops killed in Naxal attack[dead link], Deccan Herald
  63. Naxal attack Another cop succumbs[dead link],Deccan Herald
  64. [1],Hindustan Times
  65. 25 killed in Maoist attack ,The Hindu, 1 March 2006
  66. 29 killed, 250 missing in Chattisgarh naxal attack,Hindustan Times
  67. [2][dead link]
  68. [3], New, 18 October 2006
  69. 'Maoists' kill 14 Indian police', BBC, 2 December 2006
  70. Maoists behead abducted cop, Times of India, 6 October 2009 [dead link]
  71. Massive hunt on for Maoists who massacred 17 cops – India – The Times of India

External links


This page contains information from Wikipedia (view authors). It has been modified so that it meets Communpedia's standards. WP