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In economics, productivity is the amount of output yielded per unit of input. Thus, for example, labour productivity is the amount of output generated per hour of labour worked or per dollar (or £, €, ¥, etc.) paid to labour; capital productivity' is output per unit of capital invested; and the productivity of land is its yield per unit area (Ha, acre, etc).

Productivity should be distinguished from production, which is simply the output yielded, not per unit input. Thus for example if the input to a process is doubled and the output doubles, production doubled but productivity remains the same.