- For criticism see Criticism of Dhammapada
The Dhammapada (Pāli; Prakrit: Dhamapada; Sanskrit Dharmapada) is a versified Buddhist scripture traditionally ascribed to the Buddha himself. It is one of the best-known texts from the Theravada canon.
The title, Dhammapada, is a compound term composed of dhamma and pada, each word having a number of denotations and connotations. Generally, dhamma can refer to the Buddha's "doctrine" or an "eternal truth" or "righteousness" or all "phenomena"; and, at its root, pada means "foot" and thus by extension, especially in this context, means either "path" or "verse" (cf. "foot (prosody)") or both. English translations of this text's title have used various combinations of these and related words.
- 1 History
- 2 Organization
- 3 Excerpts
- 4 Literary Merits
- 5 English translations
- 6 Musical settings
- 7 Notes
- 8 Sources
- 9 External links
According to tradition, the Dhammapada's verses were spoken by the Buddha on various occasions. Most verses deal with ethics. The text is part of the Khuddaka Nikaya of the Sutta Pitaka, although over half of the verses exist in other parts of the Pali Canon. A 4th or 5th century CE commentary attributed to Buddhaghosa includes 305 stories which give context to the verses.
Although the PÄli edition is the best-known, a number of other versions are known:
- "GÄndhÄrÄ« Dharmapada" – a version possibly of Dharmaguptaka or KÄÅ›yapÄ«ya origin in GÄndhÄrÄ« written in Kharosthi script
- "Patna Dharmapada" – a version in Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit, most likely Sammatiya
- "UdÄnavarga" – a seemingly related Mula-Sarvastivada or Sarvastivada text in
- 3 Sanskrit versions
- a Tibetan translation, which is popular in traditional Tibetan Buddhism
- "MahÄvastu" – a Lokottaravada text with parallels to verses in the PÄli Dhammapada's Sahassa Vagga and Bhikkhu Vagga.
- "Fajiu jing" – 4 Chinese works; one of these appears to be an expanded translation of the Pali version; this has not traditionally been very popular.
Comparing the Pali Dhammapada, the Gandhari Dharmapada and the Udanavarga, Brough (2001) identifies that the texts have in common 330 to 340 verses, 16 chapter headings and an underlying structure. He suggests that the three texts have a "common ancestor" but underlines that there is no evidence that any one of these three texts might have been the "primitive Dharmapada" from which the other two evolved.
The Dhammapada is considered one of the most popular pieces of Theravada literature. A critical edition of the Dhammapada was produced by Danish scholar Viggo FausbÃ¸ll in 1855, becoming the first Pali text to receive this kind of examination by the European academic community.
|I.||The Twin-Verses (Yamaka-vaggo) (see excerpt below)|
|II.||On Earnestness (AppamTemplate:IASTda-vaggo)|
|V.||The Fool (BTemplate:IASTla-vaggo)|
|VI.||The Wise Man (PaTemplate:IASTita-vaggo)|
|VII.||The Venerable (Arahanta-vaggo)|
|VIII.||The Thousands (Sahassa-vaggo)|
|X.||Punishment (DaTemplate:IASTa-vaggo) (see excerpt below)|
|XI.||Old Age ([[Jaramarana|JarTemplate:IAST]]-vaggo)|
|XIII.||The World (Loka-vaggo)|
|XIV.||The Buddha — The Awakened (Buddha-vaggo) (see excerpt below)|
|XIX.||The Just (DhammaTemplate:IASTha-vaggo)|
|XX.||The Way (Magga-vaggo) (see excerpt below)|
|XXII.||The Downward Course (Niraya-vaggo)|
|XXIII.||The Elephant (NTemplate:IASTga-vaggo)|
|XXIV.||Thirst ([[Taá¹‡hÄ|Template:IAST]]-vaggo) (see excerpt below)|
|XXV.||The Mendicant (Bhikkhu-vaggo)|
|XXVI.||The BrÄhmana ([[Brahman|Template:IAST]]-vaggo)|
The following English translations are from MÃ¼ller (1881). The Pali text is from the Sri Lanka Tripitaka Project (SLTP) edition.
Ch. I. Twin Verses (Yamaka-vaggo)
|1.||All that we are is the result of what we have thought: it is founded on our thoughts, it is made up of our thoughts. If a man speaks or acts with an evil thought, pain follows him, as the wheel follows the foot of the ox that draws the carriage.||ManopubbaTemplate:IASTgamÄ dhammÄ manoseTemplate:IASThÄ manomayÄ
ManasÄ ce paduTemplate:IASThena bhÄsati vÄ karoti vÄ
Tato naTemplate:IAST dukkhamanveti cakkaTemplate:IAST'va vahato padaTemplate:IAST.
|2.||All that we are is the result of what we have thought: it is founded on our thoughts, it is made up of our thoughts. If a man speaks or acts with a pure thought, happiness follows him, like a shadow that never leaves him.||ManopubbaTemplate:IASTgamÄ dhammÄ manoseTemplate:IASThÄ manomayÄ
ManasÄ ce pasannena bhÄsati vÄ karoti vÄ
Tato naTemplate:IAST sukhamanveti chÄyÄ'va anapÄyinÄ«.
|5.||For hatred does not cease by hatred at any time: hatred ceases by love, this is an old rule.||Na hi verena verÄni sammantÄ«dha kudÄcanaTemplate:IAST
Averena ca sammanti esa dhammo sanantano.
Ch. X. Punishment (DaTemplate:IASTa-vaggo)
|131.||He who seeking his own happiness punishes or kills beings who also long for happiness, will not find happiness after death.||SukhakÄmÄni bhÅ«tÄni yodaTemplate:IASTena vihiTemplate:IASTsati
Attano sukhamesÄno pecca so na labhate sukhaTemplate:IAST.
|132.||He who seeking his own happiness does not punish or kill beings who also long for happiness, will find happiness after death.||SukhakÄmÄni bhÅ«tÄni yodaTemplate:IASTá¸ena na hiTemplate:IASTsati
Attano sukhamesÄno pecca so labhate sukhaTemplate:IAST.
|133.||Do not speak harshly to anybody; those who are spoken to will answer thee in the same way. Angry speech is painful, blows for blows will touch thee.||MÄ'voca pharusaTemplate:IAST kaÃ±ci vuttÄ paTemplate:IASTivadeyyu taTemplate:IAST
DukkhÄ hi sÄrambhakathÄ paá¹idaTemplate:IASTÄ phuseyyu taTemplate:IAST.
Chapter XII: Self (Atta-vaggo)
|157.||If a man hold himself dear, let him watch himself carefully; during one at least out of the three watches a wise man should be watchful.|
|158.||Let each man direct himself first to what is proper, then let him teach others; thus a wise man will not suffer.|
|159.||If a man make himself as he teaches others to be, then, being himself well subdued, he may subdue (others); one's own self is indeed difficult to subdue.|
|160.||Self is the lord of self, who else could be the lord? With self well subdued, a man finds a lord such as few can find.|
|161.||The evil done by oneself, self-begotten, self-bred, crushes the foolish, as a diamond breaks a precious stone.|
|162.||He whose wickedness is very great brings himself down to that state where his enemy wishes him to be, as a creeper does with the tree which it surrounds.|
|163.||Bad deeds, and deeds hurtful to ourselves, are easy to do; what is beneficial and good, that is very difficult to do.|
|164.||The foolish man who scorns the rule of the venerable (Arahat), of the elect (Ariya), of the virtuous, and follows false doctrine, he bears fruit to his own destruction, like the fruits of the Katthaka reed.|
|165.||By oneself the evil is done, by oneself one suffers; by oneself evil is left undone, by oneself one is purified. Purity and impurity belong to oneself, no one can purify another.|
|166.||Let no one forget his own duty for the sake of another's, however great; let a man, after he has discerned his own duty, be always attentive to his duty.|
Ch. XIV: The Buddha (The Awakened) (Buddha-vaggo)
|183.||Not to commit any sin, to do good, and to purify one's mind, that is the teaching of (all) the Awakened.||SabbapÄpassa akaraTemplate:IAST kusalassa upasampadÄ
SacittapariyodapanaTemplate:IAST buddhÄna sÄsanaTemplate:IAST.
Ch. XX: The Way (Magga-vaggo)
|276.||You yourself must make an effort. The Tathagatas (Buddhas) are only preachers. The thoughtful who enter the way are freed from the bondage of Mara.||Tumhehi kiccaTemplate:IAST akkhÄtÄro tathÄgatÄ
Paá¹ipannÄ pamokkhanti jhÄyino mÄrabandhanÄ.
|277.||'All created things perish,' he who knows and sees this becomes passive in pain; this is the way to purity.||Sabbe saTemplate:IASTkhÄrÄ aniccÄ'ti yadÄ paÃ±Ã±Äya passati
Atha nibbindati dukkhe esa maggo visuddhiyÄ.
|278.||'All created things are grief and pain,' he who knows and sees this becomes passive in pain; this is the way that leads to purity.||Sabbe saTemplate:IASTkhÄrÄ dukkhÄ'ti yadÄ paÃ±Ã±Äya passati
Atha nibbindati dukkhe esa maggo visuddhiyÄ.
|279.||'All forms are unreal,' he who knows and sees this becomes passive in pain; this is the way that leads to purity.||Sabbe dhammÄ anattÄ'ti yadÄ paÃ±Ã±Äya passati
Atha nibbindati dukkhe esa maggo visuddhiyÄ.
Ch. XXIV: Thirst (TaTemplate:IASThÄ-vaggo)
|343.||Men, driven on by thirst, run about like a snared hare; let therefore the mendicant drive out thirst, by striving after passionlessness for himself.||TasiTemplate:IASTÄya purakkhatÄ pajÄ parisappanti saso'va bÄdhito
TasmÄ tasiTemplate:IAST vinodaye bhikkhu ÄkaTemplate:IASTkhÄ« virÄgamattano.
|350.||If a man delights in quieting doubts, and, always reflecting, dwells on what is not delightful (the impurity of the body, &c.), he certainly will remove, nay, he will cut the fetter of Mara.||Vitakkupasame ca yo rato asubhaTemplate:IAST bhÄvayati sadÄ sato
Esa kho vyantikÄhiti esa checchati mÄrabandhanaTemplate:IAST.
Chapter XII: Self
157 If you hold yourself dear guard yourself diligently. Keep vigil during one of the three watches of the night.
158 Learn what is right; then teach others as the wise do.
159 Before trying to guide others, be your own guide first. It is hard to learn to guide oneself.
160 Your own self is your master; who else could be? With your own self controlled, your gain a master very hard to find.
161 The evil done by the selfish crushes them as a
162 diamond breaks a hard gem. As a vine over- powers a tree, evil over-powers the evil doer, trapping him in a situation only his enemies
163 would wish him to be in. Evil deeds, which harm oneself, are easy to do; good deeds are not so easy.
164 Foolish people who scoff at teachings of the wise, the noble, and the good, following false doctrines bring about their own down- fall like the khattaka tree, which dies after bearing fruit.
165 By oneself is evil done; by oneself one is in- jured. Do not do evil, and suffering will not come. Everyone has the choice to be pure or impure. No one can purify another.
166 Donâ€™t neglect you own duty for another, however great. Know your own duty and perform it.
Translated by Eknath Easwaran
Pali scholar K.R. Norman notes that some readers have claimed that the Dhammapada is a "masterpiece of Indian literature".
- Tr F. Max MÃ¼ller, in Buddhaghosha's Parables, Captain T. Rogers, 1870; reprinted in Sacred Books of the East, volume X, Clarendon/Oxford, 1881; reprinted in Buddhism, by Clarence Hamilton; reprinted separately by Watkins, 2006; reprinted 2008 by Red and Black Publishers, St Petersburg, Florida, ISBN 978-1-934941-03-4; the first English translation (a Latin translation by V. FausbÃ¶ll had appeared in 1855)
- Tr J. Gray, American Mission Press, Rangoon, 1881
- Tr Paul Carus, incorporated in his Gospel of Buddha, Open Court, Chicago, 1894 ()
- Tr J. P. Cooke & O. G. Pettis, Boston (Massachusetts?), 1898
- Hymns of Faith, tr Albert J. Edmunds, Open Court, Chicago, & Kegan Paul, Trench, TrÃ¼bner & Co., London, 1902
- Tr Norton T. W. Hazeldine, Denver, Colorado, 1902
- The Buddha's Way of Virtue, tr W. D. C. Wagiswara & K. J. Saunders, John Murray, London, 1912
- Tr Silacara, Buddhist Society, London, 1915
- Tr Suriyagoda Sumangala, in Ceylon Antiquary, 1915
- Tr A. P. Buddhadatta, Colombo Apothecaries, 1920?
- The Buddha's Path of Virtue, tr F. L. Woodward, Theosophical Publishing House, London & Madras, 1921
- In Buddhist Legends, tr E. W. Burlinghame, Harvard Oriental Series, 1921, 3 volumes; reprinted by Pali Text Society, Bristol; translation of the stories from the commentary, with the Dhammapada verses embedded
- Tr R. D. Shrikhande and/or P. L. Vaidya (according to different bibliographies; or did one publisher issue two translations in the same year?), Oriental Book Agency, Poona, 1923; includes Pali text
- "Verses on Dhamma", in Minor Anthologies of the Pali Canon, volume I, tr C. A. F. Rhys Davids, 1931, Pali Text Society; verse translation; includes Pali text
- Tr N. K. Bhag(w?)at, Buddha Society, Bombay, 1931/5; includes Pali text
- The Way of Truth, tr S. W. Wijayatilake, Madras, 1934
- Tr Irving Babbitt, Oxford University Press, New York & London, 1936; revision of Max MÃ¼ller
- Tr K. Gunaratana, Penang, Malaya, 1937
- The Path of the Eternal Law, tr Swami Premananda, Self-Realization Fellowship, Washington DC, 1942
- Tr Dhammajoti, Maha Bodhi Society, Benares, 1944
- Tr Jack Austin, Buddhist Society, London, 1945
- ?Tr "J.A.", P.D. & Ione Pelling, South Pasadena, California, ; or is this just Jack Austin again?
- Stories of Buddhist India, tr Piyadassi, 2 volumes, Moratuwa, Ceylon, 1949 & 1953; includes stories from the commentary
- Tr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, Oxford University Press, London, 1950; includes Pali text
- Collection of Verses on the Doctrine of the Buddha, comp Bhadragaka, Bangkok, 1952
- Tr T. Latter, Moulmein, Burma, 1950?
- "Collection of Verses on the Doctrine of the Buddha", Tr Bhadragaka?, Bangkok 1952/1965?
- Tr W. Somalokatissa, Colombo, 1953
- Tr Narada, John Murray, London, 1954
- Tr E. W. Adikaram, Colombo, 1954
- Tr A. P. Buddhadatta, Colombo, 1954; includes Pali text
- Tr B. Siri Sivali Thero, Colombo, 1954
- Tr ?, Cunningham Press, Alhambra, California, 1955
- Tr C. Kunhan Raja, Theosophical Publishing House, Adyar/Madras, 1956; includes Pali text
- Free rendering and interpretation by Wesley La Violette, Los Angeles, 1956
- Tr Buddharakkhita, Maha Bodhi Society, Bangalore, 1959; 4th edn, Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy, Sri Lanka, 1996; includes Pali text
- Tr Suzanne KarpelÃ¨s?, serialized in Advent (Pondicherry, India), 1960-65; reprinted in Questions and Answers, Collected Works of the Mother, 3, Pondicherry, 1977
- The progress of the wings of the law, tr Keil von Nichts, Avilan Story House, Carson City, c1996
- Tr P. Lal, Farrar, Straus & Giroux, New York, 1967
- Growing the Bodhi Tree in the Garden of the Heart, tr Khantipalo, Buddhist Association of Thailand, Bangkok, 1966; reprinted as The Path of Truth, Bangkok, 1977
- The Way of Life According to the Buddha, tr Violet Mallika Waidyasekara, 2nd ed, M. D. Gunasena, Colombo, 1969
- The Path to Virtue, tr Frank Newton, Harmony Buddhist Mission, Clarksville, Arkansas, 1971
- Tr Srikrishnadatta Bhatt, Sarva Seva Sangh, Varanasi, India, 1972
- Tr Juan MascarÃ³, Penguin Classics, 1973
- Tr Piyadassi, Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy, Sri Lanka, 1974
- Tr Nalinikanta Gupta, Sri Aurobindo Ashram, Pondicherry, India, 1974
- Tr Thomas Byrom, Shambhala, Boston, Massachusetts, & Wildwood House, London, 1976 (ISBN 0-87773-966-8)
- Tr Ananda Maitreya, serialized in Pali Buddhist Review, 1 & 2, 1976/7; offprinted under the title Law Verses, Colombo, 1978; revised by Rose Kramer (under the Pali title), originally published by Lotsawa Publications in 1988, reprinted by Parallax Press in 1995
- The Buddha's Words, tr Sathienpong Wannapok, Bangkok, 1979
- Wisdom of the Buddha, tr Harischandra Kaviratna, Pasadena, 1980; includes Pali text
- The Eternal Message of Lord Buddha, tr Silananda, Calcutta, 1982; includes Pali text
- Tr Chhi Med Rig Dzin Lama, Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies, Sarnath, India, 1982; tr from the modern Tibetan translation by dGe-'dun Chos-'phel; includes Pali & Tibetan texts
- Tr O. L. Madonza, U. N. Gunasekara, Colombo, 1983
- Tr & pub Dharma Publishing, Berkeley, California, 1985; tr from the modern Tibetan translation by dGe-'dun Chos-'phel
- Commentary, with text embedded, tr Department of Pali, University of Rangoon, published by Union Buddha Sasana Council, Rangoon (date uncertain; 1980s)
- Tr Daw Mya Tin, Burma Pitaka Association, Rangoon, 1986; probably currently published by the Department for the Promotion and Propagation of the Sasana, Rangoon, and/or Sri Satguru, Delhi
- Path of Righteousness, tr David J. Kalupahana, Universities Press of America, Lanham, Maryland, c. 1986
- The roots of Good and Evil, tr Nyanaponika, Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy, Sri Lanka, 1986
- Tr Raghavan Iyer, Santa Barbara, 1986; includes Pali text
- Tr Eknath Easwaran, Arkana, London, 1986/7(ISBN 978-1-58638-019-9); reissued with new material Nilgiri Press 2007, Tomales, CA (ISBN 9781586380205)
- Tr John Ross Carter & Mahinda Palihawadana, Oxford University Press, New York, 1987; the original hardback edition also includes the Pali text and the commentary's explanations of the verses; the paperback reprint in the World's Classics Series omits these
- Tr K. Sri Dhammananda?, Sasana Abhiwurdi Wardhana Society, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, dist Buddhist Missionary Society, 1988
- "The Dhamma Way", Tr David Evans, Leeds 1988
- Tr N. V. Banerjee, Delhi, 1989
- Tr U. D. Jayasekera, Colombo, 1992
- Treasury of Truth, tr Weragoda Sarada, Taipei, 1993
- Our Dhammapada, tr Wayne Lord, Sr., Trego-Hill Publications, El Paso, Tex., c1993
- tr Editorial and Translation Board, Central Cultural Fund, Colombo, 94.
- Tr Thomas Cleary, Thorsons, London, 1995
- The Word of the Doctrine, tr K. R. Norman, 1997, Pali Text Society, Bristol; the PTS's preferred translation
- Tr Anne Bancroft?, Element Books, Shaftesbury, Dorset, & Richport, Massachusetts, 1997
- Tr Thanissaro, Barre (MA), 1998
- Tr F. Max MÃ¼ller (see above), revised Jack Maguire, SkyLight Pubns, Woodstock, Vermont, 2002
- The Still Point Dhammapada, tr Geri Larkin, Harper, San Francisco, 2003
- Verses on the Way, tr Glenn Wallis, Modern Library, New York, 2004 (ISBN 978-0-8129-7727-1)
- Tr Gil Fronsdal, Shambhala, Boston, Massachusetts, 2005 (ISBN 1-59030-380-6)
- Tr Amitov Katz?, ed Rosemary Bryant, Astrolog Publishing House, Hod Hasharon, Israel, 2005
- Everyday Buddha, tr Karma Yonten Senge & Lawrence R. Ellyard, O Books, Winchester/New York, 2005
- Tr Mahesh Kumar Sharan, New Delhi, 2006
- Tr Bhikkhu Varado, Inward Path, Malaysia, 2007; Dhammapada in English Verse
- Tr K.T.S. Sarao, Munshiram Manoharlal, Delhi, 2009
- Tr Valerie J. Roebuck, Penguin Classics, 2010
- ?The American Dhammapada, tr Matthew Meghaprasara, Forward-Thinking Books, Canada, 2011 (ISBN 978-1-926892-63-4) [this entry has been twicw added and deleted in Wikipedia's list; the deleter claims it hasn't been published yet]
- Tr Peter Feldmeier, in Lefebure & Feldmeier, The Path of Wisdom, Peeters/Eerdmans, 2011
See also online translations listed below.
- Ronald Corp, Stone Records ()
- See, e.g., the GÄndhÄrÄ« Dharmapada (GDhp), verses 301, 302, in: Brough (1962/2001), p. 166; and, Ä€nandajoti (2007), ch. 4, "Pupphavagga" (retrieved 25 November 2008 from "Ancient Buddhist Texts" at http://www.ancient-buddhist-texts.net/Buddhist-Texts/C3-Comparative-Dhammapada/CD-04-Puppha.htm).
- See, for instance, Buswell (2003): "rank[s] among the best known Buddhist texts" (p. 11); and, "one of the most popular texts with Buddhist monks and laypersons" (p. 627). Harvey (2007), p. 322, writes: "Its popularity is reflected in the many times it has been translated into Western languages"; Brough (2001), p. xvii, writes: "The collection of Pali ethical verses entitled Dhammapada is one of the most widely known of early Buddhist texts."
- See, e.g., Rhys Davids & Stede (1921-25), pp. 335-39, entry "Dhamma," retrieved 25 November 2008 from "U. Chicago" at http://dsal.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.1:1:2654.pali.
- See, e.g., Rhys Davids & Stede (1921-25), p. 408, entry "Pada," retrieved 25 November 2008 from "U. Chicago" at http://dsal.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.2:1:1516.pali.
- See, for instance, C.A.F Rhys David's "Verses on Dhamma," Kalupahana's "The Path of Righteousness," Norman's "The Word of the Doctrine," Woodward's "The Buddha's Path of Virtue," and other titles identified below at "English translations".
- See also Fronsdal (2005), pp. xiii-xiv. Fronsdal, p. xiv, further comments:
- ... If we translate the title based on how the term dhammapada is used in the verses [see Dhp verses 44, 45, 102], it should probably be translated 'Sayings of the Dharma,' 'Verses of the Dharma,' or 'Teachings of the Dharma.' However, if we construe pada as 'path,' as in verse 21 ..., the title could be 'The Path of the Dharma.' Ultimately, as many translators clearly concur, it may be best not to translate the title at all.
- Pertinent episodes allegedly involving the historic Buddha are found in the commentary (Buddharakkhita & Bodhi, 1985, p. 4). In addition, a number of the Dhammapada's verses are identical with text from other parts of the Pali tipitaka that are directly attributed to the Buddha in the latter texts. For instance, Dhammapada verses 3, 5, 6, 328-330 can also be found in MN 128 (Ã‘ÄTemplate:IASTamoli & Bodhi, 2001, pp. 1009-1010, 1339 n. 1187).
- Harvey (2007), p. 322, line v.b., refers to the Dhammapada as "a popular collection of 423 pithy verses of a largely ethical nature." Similarly, Brough (2001)'s preface (p. xvii) starts: "The collection of Pali ethical verses entitled Dhammapada is one of the most widely known of early Buddhist texts."
- Geiger (2004), p. 19, para. 11.2 writes:
More than half the verses may be found also in other canonical texts. The compiler of the [Dhammapada] however certainly did not depend solely on these canonical texts but also made use of the great mass of pithy sayings which formed a vast floating literature in India.In a similar vein, HinÃ¼ber (2000), p. 45, para. 90 remarks: "The contents of the [Dhammapada] are mainly gnomic verses, many of which have hardly any relation to Buddhism."
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- Brough (2001), pp. 44-45, summarizes his findings and inferences as:
- "... We can with reasonable confidence say that the GÄndhÄrÄ« text did not belong to the schools responsible for the Pali Dhammapada, the UdÄnavarga, and the MahÄvastu; and unless we are prepared to dispute the attribution of any of these, this excludes the SarvÄstivÄdins and the LokottaravÄda-MahÄsÄnghikas, as well as the TheravÄdins (and probably, in company with the last, the Template:IAST). Among possible claimants, the Dharmaguptakas and Template:IAST must be considered as eligible, but still other possibilities cannot be ruled out."
- Brough (2001). The original manuscript is believed to have been written in the first or second century CE.
- See, e.g., Cone (1989).
- Journal of the Pali Text Society, volume XXIII, pages 113f
- Brough (2001), pp. 38-41, indicates that the Udanavarga is of Sarvastivadin origin.
- HinÃ¼ber (2000), p. 45, para. 89, notes:
- More than half of [the Dhammapada verses] have parallels in corresponding collections in other Buddhist schools, frequently also in non-Buddhist texts. The interrelation of these different versions has been obscured by constant contamination in the course of the text transmission. This is particularly true in case of one of the Buddhist Sanskrit parallels. The UdÄnavarga originally was a text corres[p]onding to the PÄli UdÄna.... By adding verses from the Dhp [Dhammapada] it was transformed into a Dhp parallel in course of time, which is a rare event in the evolution of Buddhist literature.
- Law (1930), p. iv; and, Ä€nandajoti (2007), "Introduction," "Sahassavagga" and "Bhikkhuvagga."
- Brough (2001), pp. 23-30. After considering the hypothesis that these texts might lack a "common ancestor," Brough (2001), p. 27, conjectures:
- On the evidence of the texts themselves it is much more likely that the schools, in some manner or other, had inherited from the period before the schisms which separated them, a definite tradition of a Dharmapada-text which ought to be included in the canon, however fluctuating the contents of this text might have been, and however imprecise the concept even of a 'canon' at such an early period. The differing developments and rearrangements of the inherited material would have proceeded along similar lines to those which, in the Brahmanical schools, produced divergent but related collections of texts in the different Yajur-veda traditions.
- ... [When] only the common material [is] considered, a comparison of the Pali Dhammapada, the Gandhari text, and the Udanavarga, has produced no evidence whatsoever that any one of these has any superior claim to represent a 'primitive Dharmapada' more faithfully than the others. Since the contrary appears to have been assumed from time to time, it is desirable to say with emphasis that the Pali text is not the primitive Dharmapada. The assumption that it was would make its relationship to the other texts altogether incomprehensible.
- Cite error: Invalid
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- English chapter titles based on MÃ¼ller (1881).
- Pali retrieved 2008-03-28 from "Bodhgaya News" (formerly, La Trobe U.) starting at http://www.bodhgayanews.net/tipitaka.php?title=&record=7150, and from "MettaNet - Lanka" at http://www.metta.lk/tipitaka/2Sutta-Pitaka/5Khuddaka-Nikaya/02Dhammapada/index.html.
- Brough (2001) orders the chapters of the Gandhari Dharmapada as follows: Template:IAST [Parenthesized question marks are part of Brough's titles.] Cone (1989) orders the chapters of the Patna Dharmapada as follows: Template:IAST
- Ä€nandajoti Bhikkhu (2007). A Comparative Edition of the Dhammapada. U. of Peradeniya. Retrieved 25 Nov 2008 from "Ancient Buddhist Texts" at http://www.ancient-buddhist-texts.net/Buddhist-Texts/C3-Comparative-Dhammapada/index.htm.
- Brough, John (2001). The GÄndhÄrÄ« Dharmapada. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited.
- Buswell, Robert E. (ed.) (2003). Encyclopedia of Buddhism. Macmillan Reference Books. ISBN 978-0028657189.
- Cone, Margaret (transcriber) (1989). "Patna Dharmapada" in the Journal of the Pali Text Society (Vol. XIII), pp. 101â€“217. Oxford: PTS. Retrieved 06-15-2008 from "Ancient Buddhist Texts" at http://www.ancient-buddhist-texts.net/Buddhist-Texts/C5-Patna/index.htm. [On-line text interspersed with Pali parallels compiled by Ä€nandajoti Bhikkhu (2007).]
- Eknath Easwaran The Dhammapada. Nilgiri Press (2007). ISBN 978-1586380205.
- Fronsdal, Gil (2005). The Dhammapada. Boston: Shambhala. ISBN 1-59030-380-6.
- Geiger, Wilhelm (trans. by Batakrishna Ghosh) (1943, 2004). PÄli Literature and Language. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers. ISBN 81-215-0716-2.
- Harvey, Peter (1990, 2007). An Introduction to Buddhism: Teachings, History and Practices. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-31333-3.
- HinÃ¼ber, Oskar von (2000). A Handbook of PÄli Literature. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-016738-7.
- Law, Bimala Churn (1930). A Study of the MahÄvastu. Calcutta: Thacker, Spink & Co. Retrieved 26 Nov 2008 from "Archive.org" at .
- MÃ¼ller, F. Max (1881). The Dhammapada (Sacred Books Of The East, Vol. X). Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2008-04-02 from "WikiSource" at http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Dhammapada_(Muller).
- Ã‘Äṇamoli, Bhikkhu (trans.) & Bhikkhu Bodhi (ed.) (2001). The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha: A Translation of the Majjhima NikÄya. Boston: Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0-86171-072-X.
- Rhys Davids, T.W. & William Stede (eds.) (1921-5). The Pali Text Societyâ€™s Paliâ€“English Dictionary. Chipstead: Pali Text Society. A general on-line search engine for the PED is available from "U. Chicago" at http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/pali/.
Translations: Note that some of these do not seem to identify their translators, so may or vmay not be identical to some of the printed translations listed above.
- Dhammapada at HolyeBooks.org
- by Bhikkhu Varado and Samanera Bodhesako (2008)
- by John Richards (1993)
- by Thomas Byrom (1993)
- by Buddharakkhita (1985) (pdf has intro by Bhikkhu Bodhi)
- by Thanissaro (1997)
- Detailed word-by-word translation of the Dhammapada, including explanation of grammar
- by Acharn Munindo
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