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Egypt (Arabic: مصر Misr) is a large nation of northeastern Africa. It includes the Sinai Peninsula, possibly considered part of Asia. The main area of habitation is along the Nile river. Large areas of land are part of the Sahara Desert and very sparsely inhabited. The capital city is Cairo (القاهرة).

جمهوريّة مصرالعربيّة
Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah
File:Egypt flag medium.png
(In Detail)
Official language Arabic
Capital Cairo
Largest City Cairo
President Hosni Mubarak
Prime Minister Atef Ebeid
 - Total
 - % water
Ranked 29th
1,001,450 km2

- Total

 - Density
Ranked 15th


 - Granted
by the United Kingdom

February 28, 1922

Currency Egyptian pound (EGP)
Time zone UTC +2 (EET)
National anthem Bilady, Bilady, Bilady
Internet TLD .EG
Calling Code 20


Main articles: History of Egypt, Pharaoh

For the origin of the name Egypt, see Aegyptus.

The regularity and richness of the annual Nile River flood, coupled with semi-isolation provided by deserts to the east and west, allowed for the development of one of the world's great civilizations. A unified kingdom arose circa 3200 BC and a series of dynasties ruled in Egypt for the next three millennia. The last native dynasty fell to the Persians in 341 BC, who in turn were replaced by the Greeks, Romans, and Byzantines.

It was the Arabs who introduced Islam and the Arabic language in the 7th century and who ruled for the next six centuries. A local military caste, the Mamluks took control about 1250 and continued to govern after the conquest of Egypt by the Ottoman Turks in 1517.

Following the completion of the Suez Canal in 1869, Egypt became an important world transportation hub, but also fell heavily into debt. Ostensibly to protect its investments, Britain seized control of Egypt's government in 1882, but nominal allegiance to the Ottoman Empire continued until 1914.

Partially independent from the UK in 1922, Egypt acquired full sovereignty following World War II.


Main article: Politics of Egypt

Egypt is a republic. Hosni Mubarak, has been President since October 14, 1981.


Main article: Governorates of Egypt

Egypt is divided into 26 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah):

Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar, Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum, Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah, Al Isma'iliyah, Al Jizah, Al Minufiyah, Al Minya, Al Qahirah, Al Qalyubiyah, Al Wadi al Jadid, Ash Sharqiyah, As Suways, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf, Bur Sa'id, Dumyat, Janub Sina', Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh, Qina, Shamal Sina', Suhaj.


Main article: Geography of Egypt

Other towns and cities include Alexandria, Aswan, Asyut, El-Mahalla El-Kubra, Giza, Hurgharda, Luxor, Kom Ombo, Port Safaga, Port Said, Sharm el Sheikh, Shubra-El-Khema, Suez, Zagazig.

Rivers include: Nile

Deserts: Egypt includes parts of the Sahara Desert and of the Libyan Desert

Oasis include: Siwa Oasis


Main article: Economy of Egypt

The completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1971 and the resultant Lake Nasser have altered the time-honored place of the Nile River in the agriculture and ecology of Egypt. A rapidly growing population (the largest in the Arab world), limited arable land, and dependence on the Nile all continue to overtax resources and stress society.

The government has struggled to ready the economy for the new millennium through economic reform and massive investment in communications and physical infrastructure.


Main article: Demographics of Egypt

Egypt is the most populous Arab country, at about 70,000,000 people. Nearly all the population is concentrated along the River Nile, notably Alexandria and Cairo, and along the Nile Delta and near the Suez Canal.


Main article: Culture of Egypt

Miscellaneous topics

External links

  • Egypt State Information Service
  • Egypt Government Services Portal
  • Egypt Travel - Official site of the Egyptian Tourism Authority
  • History of Egypt
  • Maps of Egypt - Egyptian maps and travel information

Countries of the world  |  Africa


  • Adapted from the Wikipedia article, "Egypt" December 16,