The Guardian

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The Guardian
A Guardian front page from January
Type Daily newspaper
Format Berliner
Owner Guardian Media Group
Publisher Guardian News and Media
Editor Alan Rusbridger
Opinion editor Mark Henry
Founded 1821 by John Edward Taylor as The Manchester Guardian
Political alignment Centre-left liberalism[1]
Language English
Headquarters Kings Place, 90 York Way, London N1 9GU
Circulation 226,473 (November)[2]
Sister newspapers The Observer
The Guardian Weekly
ISSN 0261-3077
OCLC number 60623878
Official website

The Guardian, until known as The Manchester Guardian (founded 1821), is a British national daily newspaper in the Berliner format. Currently edited by Alan Rusbridger, it has grown from a 19th-century local paper to a national paper associated with a complex organisational structure and international multimedia presence with sister papers The Observer (British Sunday paper) and The Guardian Weekly, as well as a large web presence.

The Guardian in paper form had a certified average daily circulation of 230,541 in October behind The Daily Telegraph and The Times, but ahead of The Independent.[3] The newspaper's online offering is the second most popular British newspaper website behind the Daily Mail's Mail Online.

Founded in 1821 by John Edward Taylor in Manchester, with backing from the non-conformist Little Circle group of local businessmen, The Manchester Guardian replaced the radical Manchester Observer which championed the Peterloo protesters. The paper identifies with centre-left liberalism and its readership is generally on the mainstream left of British political opinion. The paper is also influential in design and publishing arena, sponsoring many awards in these areas.

The Guardian has changed format and design over the years moving from broadsheet to Berliner, and has become an international media organisation with affiliations to other national papers with similar aims. The Guardian Weekly, which circulates worldwide, contains articles from The Guardian and its sister Sunday paper The Observer, as well as reports, features and book reviews from The Washington Post and articles translated from Le Monde. Other projects include GuardianFilm, the current editorial director of which is Maggie O'Kane.


1821 to 1972

Early years

The Manchester Guardian was founded in Manchester in 1821 by cotton merchant John Edward Taylor with backing from the Little Circle, a group of non-conformist businessmen,[4] who launched their paper after the police closure of the more radical Manchester Observer, the paper that had championed the cause of the Peterloo Massacre protesters. Taylor had been hostile to the radical reformers, writing, "(T)hey have appealed not to the reason but the passions and the suffering of their abused and credulous fellow-countrymen, from whose ill-requited industry they extort for themselves the means of a plentiful and comfortable existence. 'They do not toil, neither do they spin,' but they live better than those that do.[5] And when the government closed down the Manchester Observer, the mill-owners' champions had the upper hand.[6]

The influential journalist Jeremiah Garnett joined Taylor during the establishment of the paper, and all of the Little Circle wrote articles for the new paper.[7]

The prospectus announcing the new publication proclaimed that it would "zealously enforce the principles of civil and religious Liberty ... warmly advocate the cause of Reform ... endeavour to assist in the diffusion of just principles of Political Economy and ... support, without reference to the party from which they emanate, all serviceable measures".[8]

The working-class Manchester and Salford Advertiser called the Manchester Guardian "the foul prostitute and dirty parasite of the worst portion of the mill-owners".[9] The Manchester Guardian was generally hostile to labour's claims. Of the 1832 Ten Hours Bill the paper doubted whether in view of the foreign competition "the passing of a law positively enacting a gradual destruction of the cotton manufacture in this kingdom would be a much less rational procedure."[10] The Manchester Guardian dismissed strikes as the work of outside agitators – "... if an accommodation can be effected the occupation of the agents of the Union is gone. They live on strife ..."[11]

The Manchester Guardian was hostile to the Unionist cause in the American Civil War, writing on the news that Abraham Lincoln had been assassinated, "Of his rule, we can never speak except as a series of acts abhorrent to every true notion of constitutional right and human liberty ..."[12]

C. P. Scott

Its most famous editor, C. P. Scott, made the newspaper nationally recognised. He was editor for 57 years from 1872, and became its owner when he bought the paper from the estate of Taylor's son in 1907. Under Scott the paper's moderate editorial line became more radical, supporting Gladstone when the Liberals split in 1886, and opposing the Second Boer War against popular opinion.[13] Scott supported the movement for women's suffrage, but was critical of any tactics by the Suffragettes that involved direct action:[14] "The really ludicrous position is that Mr Lloyd George is fighting to enfranchise seven million women and the militants are smashing unoffending people's windows and breaking up benevolent societies' meetings in a desperate effort to prevent him". Scott thought the Suffragettes' "courage and devotion" was "worthy of a better cause and saner leadership".[15] It has been argued that Scott's criticism reflected a widespread disdain, at the time, for those women who "transgressed the gender expectations of Edwardian society".[14]

Scott commissioned J.M. Synge and his friend Jack Yeats to produce articles and drawings documenting the social conditions of the west of Ireland (pre-First World War), and these pieces were published in in the collection Travels in Wicklow, West Kerry and Connemara.[16]

Scott's friendship with Chaim Weizmann played a role in the Balfour Declaration of 1917, and in The Guardian was a supporter of the new State of Israel. Daphna Baram tells the story of The Guardian's relationship with the Zionist movement and Israel in the book Disenchantment: The Guardian and Israel.[17] In June 1936, ownership of the paper passed to the Scott Trust (named after the last owner, John Russell Scott, who was the first chairman of the Trust). This move ensured the paper's independence.

Spanish Civil War

Traditionally affiliated with the centrist to centre-left Liberal Party, and with a northern, non-conformist circulation base, the paper earned a national reputation and the respect of the left during the Spanish Civil War. With the pro-Liberal News Chronicle, the Labour-supporting Daily Herald, the Communist Party's Daily Worker and several Sunday and weekly papers, it supported the Republican government against General Francisco Franco's insurgent nationalists.


The paper so loathed Labour's left-wing champion Aneurin Bevan "and the hate-gospellers of his entourage" that it called for Attlee's post-war Labour government to be voted out of office.[18] The newspaper opposed the creation of the National Health Service as it feared the state provision of healthcare would "eliminate selective" and lead to an increase of congenitally deformed and feckless people.[19]

Its anti-establishment stance fell short of opposing military intervention during the Suez Crisis: "The government is right to be prepared for military action at Suez", because Egyptian control of the canal would be "commercially damaging for the West, and perhaps part of a plan for creating a new Arab Empire based on the Nile."[20]

1972 to

Northern Ireland

When 13 civil rights demonstrators were killed on 30 January 1972, known as Bloody Sunday, by British soldiers in Northern Ireland, The Guardian blamed the protesters: "The organisers of the demonstration, Miss Bernadette Devlin among them, deliberately challenged the ban on marches. They knew that stone throwing and sniping could not be prevented, and that the IRA [ Provisional Irish Republican Army ] might use the crowd as a shield."[21] Some Irish Nationalists believed that Lord Widgery's enquiry into the killings was a whitewash,[22] but The Guardian declared that "Lord Widgery's report is not one-sided" (20 April[23]). The paper also supported internment without trial in Northern Ireland: "Internment without trial is hateful, repressive and undemocratic. In the existing Irish situation, most regrettably, it is also inevitable. ... .To remove the ringleaders, in the hope that the atmosphere might calm down, is a step to which there is no obvious alternative."[24] And before then, The Guardian had called for British troops to be sent to the region: British soldiers could "present a more disinterested face of law and order",[25] but only on condition that "Britain takes charge".[26]

Social Democratic Party and New Labour

Three of The Guardian's four leader writers joined the SDP on its foundation in 1981, but the paper was enthusiastic in its support for Tony Blair in his bid to lead the Labour Party,[27] and to become Prime Minister.[28]

Sarah Tisdall

In 1983, the paper was at the centre of a controversy surrounding documents regarding the stationing of cruise missiles in Britain that were leaked to The Guardian by civil servant Sarah Tisdall. The paper eventually complied with a court order to hand over the documents to the authorities, which resulted in a six-month prison sentence for Tisdall,[29] though she served only four. "I still blame myself", said Peter Preston who was the editor of The Guardian at the time, but he went on to argue that the paper had no choice because it "believed in the rule of law".[30]

First Gulf war

In the lead up to the first Gulf War, between and 1991, The Guardian expressed doubts about military action against Iraq: "Frustration in the Gulf leads temptingly to the invocation of task forces and tactical bombing, but the military option is no option at all. The emergence yesterday of a potential hostage problem of vast dimensions only emphasised that this is far too complex a crisis for gunboat diplomacy. Loose talk of 'carpet bombing' Baghdad should be put back in the bottle of theoretical but unacceptable scenarios".[31]

But on the eve of the war, the paper rallied to the war cause: "The simple cause, at the end, is just. An evil regime in Iraq instituted an evil and brutal invasion. Our soldiers and airmen are there, at UN behest, to set that evil to rights. Their duties are clear. ... Let the momentum, and the resolution, be swift."[32] After the event, journalist Maggie O'Kane conceded that she and her colleagues had been a mouthpiece for war propaganda: "...we, the media, were harnessed like 2,000 beach donkeys and led through the sand to see what the British and US military wanted us to see in this nice clean war."[33]

Jonathan Aitken

In 1995, both the Granada Television programme World In Action and The Guardian were sued for libel by the then cabinet minister Jonathan Aitken, for their allegation that the Harrods owner Mohamed Al Fayed had paid for Aitken and his wife to stay at the Hôtel Ritz in Paris, which would have amounted to accepting a bribe on Aitken's part. Aitken publicly stated he would fight with "the simple sword of truth and the trusty shield of British fair play".[34] The court case proceeded, and in The Guardian produced evidence that Aitken's claim of his wife paying for the hotel stay was untrue.[35] In 1999, Aitken was jailed for perjury and perverting the course of justice.[36]


The paper supported NATO's military intervention in the Kosovo War in 1999. Though the United Nations Security Council did not support the action, The Guardian stated that "the only honourable course for Europe and America is to use military force".[37] Mary Kaldor's piece was headlined "Bombs away! But to save civilians we must get in some soldiers too."[38]

Richard Gott

According to Oleg Gordievsky a double agent working for MI6 and KGB defector, the KGB compromised prominent Guardian editor Richard Gott by paying his traveling expenses to interviews with KGB agents, a revelation which resulted in his resignation from The Guardian.[39]


The following section needs to be converted to prose
  • In the early, The Guardian challenged the Act of Settlement 1701 and the Treason Felony Act 1848.[40][41]
  • In October The Guardian published a humorous column by Charlie Brooker in its entertainment guide, which appeared to call for the assassination of George W. Bush.[42] This caused some controversy and the paper was forced to issue an apology and remove the article from its website.[43][44]
  • Following the 7 July London bombings, The Guardian published an article on its comment pages by Dilpazier Aslam, a 27 year old British Muslim journalism trainee from Yorkshire.[45] Aslam was a member of Hizb ut-Tahrir, an Islamist group, and had published a number of articles on their website. According to the paper, it did not know that Aslam was a member of Hizb ut-Tahrir when he applied to become a trainee, though several staff members were informed of this once he started at the paper.[46] The Home Office has claimed the group's "ultimate aim is the establishment of an Islamic state (Caliphate), according to Hizb ut-Tahrir via non-violent means". The Guardian asked Aslam to resign his membership of the group and, when he did not do so, terminated his employment.[47]
  • In early the paper started a tax investigation into a number of major UK companies,[48] including publishing a database of the tax paid by the FTSE 100 companies.[49] Internal documents relating to Barclays Bank's tax avoidance were removed from The Guardian's website after Barclays obtained a gagging order.[50]
  • The paper played a role in exposing the depth of the News of the World phone hacking affair.

Wars in Afghanistan and Iraq

During the Afghanistan and Iraq wars, The Guardian attracted a proportion of anti-war readers as one of the mass-media outlets most critical of UK and USA military initiatives.[citation needed] The paper did, however, endorse the argument that Iraq had to be disarmed of 'Weapons of Mass Destruction': "It is not credible to argue, as Iraq did in its initial reaction to Mr Powell [at the Security Council], that it is simply all lies. ... Iraq must disarm."[51]

Accusations of bias in coverage of Israel

Despite its early support for the Zionist movement, in recent decades The Guardian has been accused of biased criticism of Israeli government policy.[52] In December columnist Julie Burchill cited "striking bias against the state of Israel" as one of the reasons she left the paper for The Times.[53] A leaked report from the European Monitoring Centre on Racism cited The Economist's claim that for "many British Jews," the British media's reporting on Israel "is spiced with a tone of animosity, 'as to smell of anti-Semitism'... This is above all the case with the Guardian and The Independent".The EU said the report, dated February was not published because it was insubstantial in its current state and lacking sufficient evidence.[54][55] Greville Janner, former president of the Board of Deputies of British Jews, has accused The Guardian of being "viciously and notoriously anti-Israel".[56]

Responding to these accusations, a Guardian editorial in condemned anti-Semitism and defended the paper's right to criticise the policies and actions of the Israeli government, arguing that those who view such criticism as inherently anti-Jewish are mistaken.[56] Harriet Sherwood, The Guardian's foreign editor, has also denied The Guardian has an anti-Israel bias, saying that the paper aims to cover all viewpoints in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.[57]

Clark County

In August for the US presidential election, the daily G2 supplement launched an experimental letter-writing campaign in Clark County, Ohio, an average-sized county in a swing state. G2 editor Ian Katz bought a voter list from the county for $25 and asked readers to write to people listed as undecided in the election, giving them an impression of the international view and the importance of voting against US President George W. Bush. The paper scrapped "Operation Clark County" on 21 October after first publishing a column of complaints from Bush supporters about the campaign under the headline "Dear Limey assholes".[58] The public backlash against the campaign likely contributed to Bush's victory in Clark County.[59]

Guardian America

In the paper launched a website Guardian America, an attempt to capitalise on its large online readership in the United States, which at the time stood at more than 5.9m. The company hired former American Prospect editor, New York magazine columnist and New York Review of Books writer Michael Tomasky to head up the project and hire a staff of American reporters and web editors. The site featured Guardian news relevant to an American audience, coverage of US news and the Middle East, for example.[60]

Tomasky stepped down from his position as Guardian American editor in February ceding editing and planning duties to other US and London staff. He retained his position as a columnist and blogger, taking the title editor-at-large.[61]

In October the company abandoned the Guardian America homepage, instead directing users to a US news index page on the main website.[62] The next month, the company laid off six American employees, including a reporter, a multimedia producer and four web editors. The move came as Guardian News and Media opted to reconsider its US strategy amid a massive effort to cut costs across the company.[63]

Gagged from reporting Parliament

In October The Guardian reported that it was forbidden to report on a parliamentary matter, namely a question recorded in a Commons order paper, to be answered by a minister later that week.[64] The paper noted that it was being "forbidden from telling its readers why the paper is prevented—for the first time in memory—from reporting parliament. Legal obstacles, which cannot be identified, involve proceedings, which cannot be mentioned, on behalf of a client who must remain secret. The only fact the Guardian can report is that the case involves the London solicitors Carter-Ruck." The paper further claimed that this case appears "to call into question privileges guaranteeing free speech established under the 1688 Bill of Rights".[65] The only parliamentary question mentioning Carter Ruck in the relevant period was by Paul Farrelly MP, in reference to legal action by Barclays and Trafigura.[66][67] The part of the question referencing Carter-Ruck relates to the latter company's September gagging order on the publication of a internal report[68] into the Côte d'Ivoire toxic waste dump scandal, which involved a class action case that the company only settled in September after The Guardian published some of the commodity trader's internal emails.[69] The reporting injunction was lifted the next day, as Carter Ruck withdrew it before The Guardian could challenge it in the High Court.[70] Alan Rusbridger credited the rapid back-down of Carter-Ruck to Twitter,[71] as did a BBC article.[72]


The Guardian is part of the GMG Guardian Media Group of newspapers, radio stations, print media including The Observer Sunday newspaper, The Guardian Weekly international newspaper, and new media—Guardian Abroad website, and All the aforementioned were owned by The Scott Trust, a charitable foundation existing between and which aimed to ensure the paper's editorial independence in perpetuity, maintaining its financial health to ensure it did not become vulnerable to take overs by for-profit media groups. At the beginning of October the Scott Trusts assets were transferred to a new limited company, The Scott Trust Limited, with the intention being that the original trust would be wound up.[73] Dame Liz Forgan, chair of the Scott Trust, reassured staff that the purposes of the new company remained as under the previous arrangements.

The Guardian has been consistently loss-making. The National Newspaper division of GMG, which also includes The Observer, reported operating losses of £49.9m in up from £18.6m in.[74] The paper is therefore heavily dependent on cross-subsidisation from profitable companies within the group, including Auto Trader .

The Guardian's ownership by the Scott Trust is a likely factor in it being the only British national daily to conduct (since) an annual social, ethical and environmental audit in which it examines, under the scrutiny of an independent external auditor, its own behaviour as a company.[75] It is also the only British daily national newspaper to employ an internal ombudsman (called the "readers' editor") to handle complaints and corrections.

The Guardian and its parent groups participate in Project Syndicate, established by George Soros, and intervened in to save the Mail & Guardian in South Africa, but Guardian Media Group sold the majority of its shares in the Mail & Guardian in.

The continual losses made by the National Newspaper division of the Guardian Media Group caused the group to dispose of its Regional Media division by selling titles to competitor Trinity Mirror in March. This included the flagship Manchester Evening News, and severed the historic link between that paper and The Guardian. The sale was in order to safeguard the future of The Guardian Newspaper as is the intended purpose of the Scott Trust.[76]

In June Guardian News and Media revealed increased annual losses of £33m and announced that it was looking to focus on its online edition for news coverage, leaving a physical newspaper that was to contain more comment and features. It was also speculated that the Guardian may become the first British national daily paper to go solely online.[77][78]

Political stance and editorial opinion

Founded by textile traders and merchants, The Guardian had a reputation as "an organ of the middle class",[79] or in the words of C.P. Scott's son Ted "a paper that will remain bourgeois to the last".[80] "I write for the Guardian," said Sir Max Hastings in[81] "because it is read by the new establishment", reflecting the paper's then growing influence.

The paper's readership is generally on the mainstream left of British political opinion: a MORI poll taken between April and June showed that 80% of Guardian readers were Labour Party voters;[82] according to another MORI poll taken in 48% of Guardian readers were Labour voters and 34% Liberal Democrat voters.[83] The newspaper's reputation as a platform for liberal and left-wing opinions has led to the use of the epithet "Guardian reader" as a label for people holding such views.[84][85]

Guardian features editor Ian Katz stated in that "...  it is no secret we are a centre-left newspaper ...".[1] In Guardian columnist Jackie Ashley said that editorial contributors were a mix of "right-of-centre libertarians, greens, Blairites, Brownites, Labourite but less enthusiastic Brownites, etc" and that the newspaper was "clearly left of centre and vaguely progressive". She also said that "you can be absolutely certain that come the next general election, The Guardian's stance will not be dictated by the editor, still less any foreign proprietor (it helps that there isn't one) but will be the result of vigorous debate within the paper."[86] The paper's comment and opinion pages, though often written by centre-left contributors such as Polly Toynbee, have allowed some space for right-of-centre voices such as Simon Jenkins, Max Hastings and Michael Gove.

In the run-up to the general election, following a meeting of the editorial staff,[87] the paper declared its support for the Liberal Democrats, in particular due to the party's stance on electoral reform. The paper suggested tactical voting to prevent a Conservative victory, given Britain's first-past-the-post electoral system.[88]

Assistant Editor Michael White, in discussing media self-censorship in March says, "I have always sensed liberal, middle class ill-ease in going after stories about immigration, legal or otherwise, about welfare fraud or the less attractive tribal habits of the working class, which is more easily ignored altogether. Toffs, including royal ones, Christians, especially popes, governments of Israel, and US Republicans are more straightforward targets."[89]

Circulation and format

The Guardian had a certified average daily circulation of 358,844 copies in January– a drop of 5.17% on January as compared to sales of 842,912 for The Daily Telegraph, 617,483 for The Times, and 215,504 for The Independent.[90]

Publication history

The Guardian's Newsroom visitor centre and archive (No 60), with an old sign with the name The Manchester Guardian

The first edition was published on 5 May 1821,[91] at which time The Guardian was a weekly, published on Saturdays and costing 7d.; the stamp duty on newspapers (4d. per sheet) forced the price up so high that it was uneconomic to publish more frequently. When the stamp duty was cut in 1836 The Guardian added a Wednesday edition; with the abolition of the tax in 1855 it became a daily paper costing 2d.

In the paper took the step of printing news on the front page, replacing the adverts that had hitherto filled that space. Then-editor A. P. Wadsworth wrote: "It is not a thing I like myself, but it seems to be accepted by all the newspaper pundits that it is preferable to be in fashion."

In the paper dropped "Manchester" from its title, becoming simply The Guardian, and in it moved to London, losing some of its regional agenda but continuing to be heavily subsidised by sales of the less intellectual but much more profitable Manchester Evening News. The financial position remained extremely poor into the 1970s; at one time it was in merger talks with The Times. The paper consolidated its centre-left stance during the 1970s and 1980s but was both shocked and revitalised by the launch of The Independent in which competed for a similar readership and provoked the entire broadsheet industry into a fight for circulation.

On 12 February The Guardian had a significant redesign; as well as improving the quality of its printers' ink, it also changed its masthead to the now familiar juxtaposition of an italic Garamond "The", with a bold Helvetica "Guardian", that remained in use until the redesign.

In it relaunched its features section as G2, a tabloid-format supplement. This innovation was widely copied by the other "quality" broadsheets, and ultimately led to the rise of "compact" papers and The Guardian's move to the Berliner format. In the paper declined to participate in the broadsheet 'price war' started by Rupert Murdoch's The Times. In June 1993, The Guardian bought The Observer from Lonrho, thus gaining a serious Sunday newspaper partner with similar political views.

Its international weekly edition is now titled The Guardian Weekly, though it retained the title Manchester Guardian Weekly for some years after the home edition had moved to London. It includes sections from a number of other internationally significant newspapers of a somewhat left-of-centre inclination, including Le Monde. The Guardian Weekly is also linked to a website for expatriates, Guardian Abroad, which was launched in but had been taken offline by.

g24 is a constantly-updated electronic newspaper available free of charge. [2] It is downloadable as a PDF file. The contents come from The Guardian and its Sunday sibling The Observer.

Moving to the Berliner paper format

The Guardian is printed in full colour,[92] and was the first newspaper in the UK to use the Berliner format for its main section, with producing sections and supplements in a range of page sizes including tabloid, approximately A4, and pocket-size (approximately A5).

In The Guardian announced plans to change to a "Berliner" or "midi" format similar to that used by Die Tageszeitung in Germany, Le Monde in France and many other European papers; at 470×315 mm, this is slightly larger than a traditional tabloid. Planned for the autumn of this change followed the moves by The Independent and The Times to start publishing in tabloid (or compact) format. On Thursday 1 September The Guardian announced that it would launch the new format on Monday 12 September. [93] Sister Sunday newspaper The Observer went over to the same format on 8 January.

The advantage that The Guardian saw in the Berliner format was that though it is only a little wider than a tabloid, and is thus equally easy to read on public transport, its greater height gives more flexibility in page design. The new presses mean that printing can go right across the 'gutter', the strip down the middle of the centre page, allowing the paper to print striking double page pictures. The new presses also made the paper the first UK national able to print in full colour on every page.

The format switch was accompanied by a comprehensive redesign of the paper's look. On Friday 9 September the newspaper unveiled its new look front page, which débuted on Monday 12 September. Designed by Mark Porter, the new look includes a new masthead for the newspaper, its first since 1988. A typeface family called Guardian Egyptian, designed by Paul Barnes and Christian Schwartz, was created for the new design. No other typeface is used anywhere in the paper– all stylistic variations are based on various forms of Guardian Egyptian.

The switch cost Guardian Newspapers £80 million and involved setting up new printing presses in east London and Manchester. This was because, prior to The Guardian's move, no printing presses in Britain could produce newspapers in the Berliner format. There were additional complications as one of the paper's presses was part-owned by Telegraph Newspapers and Express Newspapers, and it was contracted to use the plant until. Another press was shared with the Guardian Media Group's north western tabloid local papers, which did not wish to switch to the Berliner format.


The new format was generally well received by Guardian readers, who were encouraged to provide feedback on the changes. The only controversy was over the dropping of the Doonesbury cartoon strip. The paper reported thousands of calls and emails complaining about its loss and within 24 hours, the decision was reversed and the strip was reinstated the following week. G2 supplement editor Ian Katz, who was responsible for dropping it, apologised in the editors' blog saying, "I'm sorry, once again, that I made you– and the hundreds of fellow fans who have called our helpline or mailed our comments' address– so cross".[94] Some readers were however dissatisfied as the earlier deadline needed for the all-colour sports section meant that coverage of late-finishing evening football matches became less satisfactory in the editions supplied to some parts of the country.

The investment was rewarded with a circulation rise. In December the average daily sale stood at 380,693, nearly 6% higher than the figure for December.[95] In the US-based Society for News Design chose The Guardian and Polish daily Rzeczpospolita as the world's best-designed newspapers– from among 389 entries from 44 countries.[96]

Regular content and features

On each weekday The Guardian comes with the G2 supplement containing feature articles, columns, television and radio listings, and the quick crossword. Since the change to the Berliner format, there is a separate daily Sport section. Other regular supplements during the week are shown below.

Before the redesign in the main news section was in the large broadsheet format, but the supplements were all in the half-sized tabloid format, with the exception of the glossy Weekend section which was a 290×245 mm magazine and The Guide which was in a small 225×145 mm format.

With the change of the main section to the Berliner format, the specialist sections are now printed as Berliner, as is a now-daily Sports section, but G2 has moved to a "magazine-sized" demi-Berliner format. A Thursday Technology section and daily science coverage in the news section replaced Life and Online. Weekend and The Guide are still in the same small formats as before the change.

On Monday to Thursday prior to the recession, the supplements carried substantial quantities of recruitment advertising as well as editorial on their specialised topics. However, this has diminished since the onset of recession, to the point that the supplements have been seriously contracted or no longer appear as independent sections. With draconian and ideologically motivated government cuts applying to local government employment, the formerly sixty-page-thick Society supplement (Wednesday) is now no more and has been absorbed into the main part of the paper.

G2 and other supplements

The following sections are in G2 every day from Monday to Friday: Arts, TV and Radio, Puzzles.



  • Clogger, a humorous look at the weekend's football. This includes an ever-changing list of sub-features such as:
  • Screen Break, by Martin Kelner: analysis of TV sports coverage
  • What's rocking sport, where sportspeople select their favourite music

In G2:




  • Multiple choice: poses the same question to three different people (e.g. a teacher, a parent and a pupil)

In G2:

SocietyGuardian (covers the British public sector and related issues)

  • Eco Soundings: environmental news

In G2:

  • Private Lives

Formerly TechnologyGuardian (print version demised from 17 December)[97]

  • The "Free Our Data" campaign

In G2:

  • Lost in showbiz
  • Women
  • Chess, poker and bridge

Film & Music supplement


The Guide (a weekly listings magazine)

  • All Ears

Weekend (supplement)

  • One Million Tiny Plays About Britain
  • "This Column Will Change Your Life" by Oliver Burkeman
  • Food
    • The New Vegetarian

Review (covers literature)


Work including Graduate



Regular cartoon strips

Editorial cartoonists Martin Rowson and Steve Bell have received hate mail for their treatment of topics that some deem controversial.[98]

Online media

The Guardian and its Sunday sibling The Observer publish all their news online, with free access both to current news and an archive of three million stories. A third of the site's hits are for items over a month old.[99] The website also offers G24, a free printable A4 format PDF 24-hour newspaper containing the top stories[100] and, for a monthly subscription, the complete newspaper in PDF format. As of January it is the second most popular UK newspaper website, behind the Daily Mail's Mail Online, with 39 million unique browsers per month to the Mail's 53.9m,[101] and in April MediaWeek reported that it is the fifth most popular newspaper site in the world.[102]

The Comment is Free section features columns by the paper's journalists and regular commentators, as well as articles from guest writers, with readers comments and responses below. The section includes all the opinion pieces published in the paper itself, as well as many others that only appear online. Censorship is exercised by Moderators who can ban posts - with no right of appeal - by those who they feel have overstepped the mark. The Guardian has taken what they call a very 'open' stance in delivering news, and have launched an open platform for their content. This allows external developers to easily use Guardian content in external applications, and even to feed third-party content back into the Guardian network.[103] The Guardian also had a number of talkboards that were noted for their mix of political discussion and whimsy, until they were closed on Friday 25 February.[104] They were spoofed in The Guardian 's own regular humorous Chatroom column in G2. The spoof column purported to be excerpts from a chatroom on, a real URL which pointed to The Guardian's talkboards.

The paper has also launched a dating website, Soulmates,[105] and is experimenting with new media, having previously offered a free twelve part weekly podcast series by Ricky Gervais.[106] In January Gervais' show topped the iTunes podcast chart having been downloaded by two million listeners worldwide,[107] and is scheduled to be listed in the Guinness Book of Records as the most downloaded podcast.[108]


In The Guardian started the film production company GuardianFilms, headed by journalist Maggie O'Kane. Much of the company's output is documentary made for television– and it has included Salam Pax's Baghdad Blogger for BBC Two's daily flagship Newsnight, some of which have been shown in compilations by CNN International, Sex On The Streets and Spiked, both made for the UK's Channel 4 television.[109]

"GuardianFilms was born in a sleeping bag in the Burmese rainforest," wrote O'Kane in.[110] "I was a foreign correspondent for the paper, and it had taken me weeks of negotiations, dealing with shady contacts and a lot of walking to reach the cigar-smoking Karen twins– the boy soldiers who were leading attacks against the country's ruling junta. After I had reached them and written a cover story for the newspaper's G2 section, I got a call from the BBC's documentary department, which was researching a film on child soldiers. Could I give them all my contacts?

"The plight of the Karen people, who were forced into slave labour in the rainforest to build pipelines for oil companies (some of them British), was a tale of human suffering that needed to be told by any branch of the media that was interested. I handed over all the names and numbers I had, as well as details of the secret route through Thailand to get into Burma. Good girl. Afterwards– and not for the first time– it seemed to me that we at The Guardian should be using our resources ourselves. Instead of providing contact numbers for any independent TV company prepared to get on the phone to a journalist, we should make our own films."

According to GuardianFilms's own webpage, its international work has focused on training talented local journalists based on the premise that "the era of a traditional London or Washington based foreign correspondent or fireman is coming to an end and the world urgently needs a more searching challenging journalism brought to us by people who speak the language and can secure access far beyond the "Green Zone Journalist" limits of the traditional correspondent." It says it is especially focused on reporting the Muslim world in a more challenging manner, and has trained a number of journalists in Iraq, Afghanistan and Zimbabwe.[111]

GuardianFilms has received several broadcasting awards. In addition to two Amnesty International Media Awards in and "The Baghdad Blogger: Salam Pax" won a Royal Television Society Award in. "Baghdad: A Doctor's Story" won an Emmy Award for Best International Current Affairs film in.[112] In "Inside the Surge" won the Royal Television Society award for best international news film – the first time a newspaper has won such an award.[113] In The Guardian's Katine website was awarded for its outstanding new media output at the One World Media awards. In GuardianFilms' undercover video report revealing vote rigging by Robert Mugabe's Zanu PF party during the Zimbabwe election won best news programme of the year at the Broadcast Awards.[112][114]

References in popular culture

The paper's nickname The Grauniad originated with the satirical magazine Private Eye.[115] This anagram played on The Guardian's reputation for frequent typographical errors, such as misspelling its own name as The Template:Not a typo.[116] The domain is registered to the paper and redirects to their website.

The very first issue of the newspaper contained a number of errors, perhaps the most notable being a notification that there would soon be some goods sold at Template:Not a typo instead of auction. There are fewer typographical errors in the paper since the end of hot-metal typesetting.[117] One of their writers, Keith Devlin, suggested that the high number of observed misprints was due more to the quality of the readership than their greater frequency.[118]



The Guardian has been awarded the National Newspaper of the Year in 1999,[119] and[120] by the British Press Awards, and "Front Page of the Year" in ("A declaration of war", 12 September[121]).[119] It was also co-winner of the World's Best-designed Newspaper as awarded by the Society for News Design.

Guardian journalists have won a range of British Press Awards, including[119]

Other awards include:

The website won the Best Newspaper category three years running in and Webby Awards, beating (in) the New York Times, the Washington Post, The Wall Street Journal and Variety.[122] It has been the winner for six years in a row of the British Press Awards for Best Electronic Daily Newspaper.[123] The site won an Eppy award from the US-based magazine Editor & Publisher in for the best-designed newspaper online service.[124] The website is known for its commentary on sporting events, particularly its over-by-over cricket commentary.

In the newspaper was ranked first in a study on transparency that analysed 25 mainstream English-language media vehicles, which was conducted by the International Center for Media and the Public Agenda of the University of Maryland.[125] It scored 3.8 out of a possible 4.0.


The Guardian is the sponsor of two major literary awards: The Guardian First Book Award, established in as a successor to the Guardian Fiction Award which had run since 1965, and the Guardian Children's Fiction Prize, founded in 1967. In recent years it has also sponsored the Hay Festival in Hay-on-Wye.

The annual Guardian Student Media Awards, founded in 1999, recognise excellence in journalism and design of British university and college student newspapers, magazines and websites.

In memory of Paul Foot, who died in The Guardian and Private Eye jointly set up the "Paul Foot Award", with an annual £10,000 prize fund, for investigative or campaigning journalism.[126]


Notable regular contributors (past and present)


Columnists & journalists




Photographers and Picture Editors

  • Herbert Walter Doughty (The Manchester Guardian's first photographer, July 1908)
  • Eamonn McCabe

The Guardian News & Media Archive

The Guardian and its sister newspaper The Observer opened The Newsroom, an archive and visitor centre in London, in. The centre preserved and promoted the histories and values of the newspapers through its archive, educational programmes and exhibitions. The Newsroom's activities all transferred to Kings Place in. [131] Now known as the Guardian News & Media Archive, the archive preserves and promotes the histories and values of the Guardian and the Observer newspapers by collecting and making accessible material that provides an accurate and comprehensive history of the papers. The archive holds official records of the Guardian and the Observer and also seeks to acquire material from individuals who have been associated with the papers. As well as corporate records, the archive holds correspondence, diaries, notebooks, original cartoons and photographs belonging to staff of the papers.[131] This material may be consulted by members of the public by prior appointment. There is also an extensive Manchester Guardian archive at the University of Manchester's John Rylands University Library and there is a collaboration programme between the two archives. The British Library also has a large archive of The Manchester Guardian, available in online, hard copy, microform, and CD-ROM in their British Library Newspapers collection.

In November The Guardian and The Observer made their archives available over the internet via DigitalArchive. The current extent of the archives available are 1821 to for The Guardian and 1791 to for The Observer: these archives will eventually run up to.

The Newsroom's other components were also transferred to Kings Place in. The Guardian's Education Centre provides a range of educational programmes for students and adults. The Guardian's exhibition space was also moved to Kings Place, and has a rolling programme of exhibitions which investigate and reflect upon aspects of news and newspapers and the role of journalism. This programme often draws on the archive collections held in the GNM Archive.

See also


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External links

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